Monday, March 31, 2008

Analogies 81 - 85


(B). prevarication:truth

(C). metaphor:description
(D). repetition:boredom
(E). conciliation:appeasement


(A). sublime:worthless
(B). entrenched:precedent
(C). quotidian:regularity
(D). deceptive:plausibility

(E). ethereal:substance


(A). circumvent:space
(B). rotate:size
(C). plumb:depth
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(D). elevate:height
(E). truncate:length


(A). window:glass
(B). ladle:tureen
(C). car:train
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(D). room:house
(E). dagger:weapon
L p6d E l;J;L


(A). aggrandize:importance
(B). exalt:admiration

(C). blazon:reputation

(D). repeat:redundancy

(E). dispirit:morale


81. B is the answer - X avoids Y

82. E is the answer - X and Y are antonyms

83. E is the answer - To decrease Y is to X it

84. E is the answer - X is a type of Y

85. E is the answer - To X is to weaken/ lower in Y

APRIL - High frequency words

APRIL THREAD - Updated regularly

Make sure to do all words from previous threads also...

1. Haphazard - Dependent upon or characterized by mere chance; fortuity; ; without plan or organization; having no particular pattern, purpose, organization, or structure
2. Immutable - Not subject or susceptible to change; incapable of changing or being modified; unchangeable
Haunter - One who, or that which, haunts
4. Qurush - 20 qurush equal 1 riyal in Saudi Arabia; a former coin and fractional monetary unit of several Middle Eastern and North African countries
5. Taut - Pulled or drawn tight; not slack; strained; tense; marked by the efficient, sparing, or concise use of something, such as language or detail; kept in trim shape; neat and tidy; rigid, tight; (of a ship) having a disciplined and efficient crew

6. Escalation - The act of increasing or rising; intensification; the use of successively more powerful types of weapons in war
Happenstance - An unexpected random event
Layover - A short stop or break in a journey, usually imposed by scheduling requirements; a brief stay in the course of a journey
9. Banquet - Banquet - An elaborate, sumptuous repast; ceremonial dinner honoring a particular guest or occasion; honor at or partake of a banquet; large meal elaborately prepared or served; dinner
10. Allude - To make an indirect reference; to suggest or infer; make a more or less disguised reference to

11. Nuance - A subtle or slight degree of difference, as in meaning, feeling, or tone; a gradation; expression or appreciation of subtle shades of meaning, feeling, or tone; slight difference; shading; slight variation between nearly identical entities
12. Prevarication - The act of prevaricating, shuffling, or quibbling, to evade the truth or the disclosure of truth; a deviation from the truth and fair dealing; secret abuse in the exercise of a public office; collusion of an informer with the defendant, for the purpose of making a sham prosecution; statement that deviates from or perverts the truth; intentionally vague or ambiguous; the deliberate act of deviating from the truth
13. Boredom - The condition of being bored; disinterest; weariness
14. Appeasement - An act of appeasing; policy of granting concessions to potential enemies to maintain peace; satisfaction; pacification
15. Metaphorical - Figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison; one thing conceived as representing another; a symbol; expressing one thing in terms normally denoting another
Altruistic - Unselfish concern for the welfare of others; selflessness
Innocuous - Having no adverse effect; harmless; not likely to offend or provoke to strong emotion; insipid; devoid of hurtful qualities; lacking the qualities requisite for spiritedness and originality
18. Affinity - A natural attraction, liking, or feeling of kinship; inherent similarity between persons or things; relationship or resemblance in structure between species that suggests a common origin; liking or inclination toward something; similarity; close relationship or connection
19. Pervasive - Having the quality or tendency to pervade or permeate; spreading throughout; extending; suffusing
Euphemism - The act or an example of substituting a mild, indirect, or vague term for one considered harsh, blunt, or offensive; use or an instance of equivocal language; polite term
21. Rhetoric - The art or study of using language effectively and persuasively; treatise or book discussing this art; skill in using language effectively and persuasively; style of speaking or writing, especially the language of a particular subject; verbal communication; discourse; art of public speaking; wordiness; long speech
Stench - A strong, foul odor; a stink; a distinctive odor that is offensively unpleasant
Unbridled - Unrestrained; uncontrolled; lacking in moral restraint; being without restraint
Misdemeanor - A misdeed; breaking of the law that is less serious than a felony; minor crime, punishable by a fine or a light jail term
Discreditable - Harmful to one's reputation; blameworthy; dishonorable, reprehensible; meriting or causing shame or dishonor; tending to bring discredit or disrepute
Conundrum - A riddle in which a fanciful question is answered by a pun; paradoxical, insoluble, or difficult problem; a dilemma; anything that arouses curiosity or perplexes because it is unexplained, inexplicable, or secret
27. Symphony - Pleasing agreement, as of musical sounds; harmony, especially of sound or color
Mettle - Courage and fortitude; spirit; inherent quality of character and temperament; boldness, strength of character; quality of mind enabling one to face danger or hardship resolutely
29. Hankering - Strong desire

30. Obstreperous - Noisily and stubbornly defiant; aggressively boisterous; unruly; not submitting to discipline or control; offensively loud and insistent
Amenable - Willing to carry out the wishes of others; able to be judged; responsible; willing, cooperative; willing to change or submit
Debauched - Dissolute; dissipated; violated, corrupted; lead away from virtue or morality; to corrupt
Exacerbate - To increase the severity, violence, or bitterness of; aggravate; infuriate; make more sharp, severe, or virulent
Saboteur - Someone who commits sabotage or deliberately causes wrecks; a member of a clandestine subversive organization who tries to help a potential invader
Gratuitous - Costing nothing; not required, necessary, or warranted by the circumstances of the case; not necessary; free
Stern - Hard, harsh, or severe in manner or character; grim, gloomy, or forbidding in appearance or outlook; firm or unyielding; uncompromising; inexorable; relentless; the rear part of a ship or boat; rear part or section
Lampoon - A written attack ridiculing a person, group, or institution; light, good-humored satire; a work, as a novel or play, that exposes folly by the use of humor or irony; ridicule, make fun of
Futility - The quality of having no useful result; uselessness; lack of importance or purpose; frivolousness; condition or quality of being useless or ineffective; fruitlessness
Pragmatic - Practical; sensible; dealing or concerned with facts or actual occurrences; person given to intruding in other people's affairs
Impeachable - Capable of being impeached
Feral - Existing in a wild or untamed state; having returned to an untamed state from domestication; of or suggestive of a wild animal; savage; wild; being wild after escaping from domestication
Disrupt - To interrupt or impede the progress, movement, or procedure of; break or burst; rupture; throw into confusion or disorder; upset, disorganize
Starry-eyed - Having a naively enthusiastic, overoptimistic, or romantic view; unrealistic; unrealistically or naively optimistic
Choreograph - To plan out or oversee the movement, development, or details of; orchestrate; to specialize in choreography; compose a sequence of dance steps to music; plan and oversee the development and details of
Invidious - Tending to rouse ill will, animosity, or resentment; containing or implying a slight; discriminatory; envious; damaging to the reputation; resentfully or painfully desirous of another's advantages; hateful
46. Calcify - To make or become stony or chalky by deposition of calcium salts; make or become inflexible and unchanging; become impregnated with calcium salts; convert into lime; become inflexible and unchanging
47. Whet - To sharpen (a knife, for example); hone; make more keen; stimulate; sharpen; arouse; excite
48. Invective - Denunciatory or abusive language; vituperation; denunciatory or abusive expression or discourse; harsh, often insulting language; of, relating to, or characterized by verbal abuse; verbal abuse; utterance intended to insult or abuse
Abdicate - To relinquish (power or responsibility) formally; relinquish formally a high office or responsibility; give up a possession, claim, or right; give up a right, or power, position
50. Trenchant - Forceful, effective, and vigorous; caustic; cutting; distinct; clear-cut; possessing or displaying perceptions of great accuracy and sensitivity; sarcastic, scathing; having keenness and forcefulness and penetration in thought, expression, or intellect
51. Bilk - To defraud, cheat, or swindle; evade payment of; thwart or frustrate; to elude; hoax or swindle; one who cheats; get money or something else from by deceitful trickery; person who cheats; cheat out of something

52. Tantalize - To excite (another) by exposing something desirable while keeping it out of reach; excite (another) by exposing something desirable while keeping it out of reach; provoke, tease; to tease
53. Slight - Insignificant, small; thin, small in build; insult, disrespect; offend, insult; deliberate discourtesy; a snub; do negligently or thoughtlessly; scant; treat with discourteous reserve or inattention; small importance or consideration; trifling; small and slender in build or construction; delicate; small in size, degree, or amount
Seer - Someone who sees something occur; clairvoyant; prophet; person who foretells future events by or as if by supernatural means; person with unusual powers of foresight
55. Fastidious - Possessing or displaying careful, meticulous attention to detail; difficult to please; exacting; excessively scrupulous or sensitive, especially in matters of taste or propriety; very particular and sensitive
56. Feckless - Lacking purpose or vitality; feeble or ineffective; careless and irresponsible; without purpose
57. Daft - Mad; crazy; foolish; stupid; scots; frolicsome
Tantamount - Agreeing exactly in value, quantity, or effect; same; equivalent in effect or value
Cull - To pick out from others; select; gather; collect; to remove rejected members or parts from (a herd, for example); something picked out from others, especially something rejected because of inferior quality; collect (something) bit by bit; make a choice from a number of alternatives
60. Perspicuous - Clearly expressed or presented; easy to understand; expressing oneself clearly and effectively; clear, obvious; (of language) transparently clear; easily understandable
61. Gargoyle - A roof spout in the form of a grotesque or fantastic creature projecting from a gutter to carry rainwater clear of the wall; a grotesque ornamental figure or projection; person of bizarre or grotesque appearance; decoration on a building in the form of a strange, imaginary creature
62. Garbled - To mix up or distort to such an extent as to make misleading or incomprehensible; to scramble (a signal or message), as by erroneous encoding or faulty transmission; to sort out; cull; mix up, misrepresent; make false by mutilation or addition
63. Wrench - A sudden, sharp twist or pull; tool for holding and turning nuts, bolts or pipes; sudden tug at one's emotions; a surge of compassion, sorrow, or anguish; break or parting that causes emotional distress; distortion in the original form or meaning of something written or spoken; twisted interpretation; twist and sprain; alter the position of by a sharp, forcible twisting or turning movement
64. Jibe - To shift a fore-and-aft sail from one side of a vessel to the other while sailing before the wind so as to sail on the opposite tack; to be in accord; agree; to be compatible or in correspondence; make fun of in a taunting way
65. Spat - An oyster or similar bivalve mollusk in the larval stage, especially when it settles to the bottom and begins to develop a shell; spawn of an oyster or a similar mollusk; cloth or leather gaiter covering the shoe upper and the ankle and fastening under the shoe with a strap. Often used in the plural; brief quarrel; a slap or smack; spattering sound, as of raindrops; discussion, often heated, in which a difference of opinion is expressed; protective covering (usually stainless steel) at the bottom of a doorframe to prevent or minimize damage in this area; past tense of spit
66. Weltschmerz - Sadness over the evils of the world, especially as an expression of romantic pessimism; sadness on thinking about the evils of the world
67. Exoteric - Not confined to an inner circle of disciples or initiates; comprehensible to or suited to the public; popular; of or relating to the outside; external; suitable for the general public
68. Physiognomy - The art of judging human character from facial features; facial features, especially when regarded as revealing character; aspect and character of an inanimate or abstract entity; an outward appearance; features of the human face; art of determining the character of another by the resemblances and differences between his face and our own, which is the standard of excellence
69. Bravura - Brilliant technique or style in performance; piece or passage that emphasizes a performer's virtuosity; showy manner or display; of, relating to, or being a brilliant performance technique or style; ostentatious
Enliven - To make lively or spirited; animate; inspire, vitalize; heighten or intensify
71. Nugatory - Of little or no importance; trifling. having no force; invalid
Yank - To pull with a quick, strong movement; jerk; extract or remove abruptly; pull on something suddenly; move or cause to move with a sudden abrupt motion; pull hard and fast
73. Welsh - Of or relating to Wales or its people, language, or culture; to swindle a person by not paying a debt or wager; fail to fulfill an obligation; cheat by avoiding payment of a gambling debt
74. Zeitgeist - The spirit of the time; the taste and outlook characteristic of a period or generation; the general intellectual, moral and cultural climate of an era
75. Dissension - Difference of opinion; disagreement; conflict of opinion; state of disagreement and disharmony; disagreement among those expected to cooperate; conflict of people's opinions or actions or characters
76. Expatiate - To speak or write at length; wander freely; express at greater length or in greater detail; speak or write in great detail
77. Loom - To come into view as a massive, distorted, or indistinct image; appear to the mind in a magnified and threatening form; to seem imminent; impend; distorted, threatening appearance of something, as through fog or darkness; apparatus for making thread or yarn into cloth by weaving strands together at right angles; weave (a tapestry, for example) on a loom; machine for weaving yarn into cloth
78. Dabble - To splash or spatter with or as if with a liquid; undertake something superficially or without serious intent; bob forward and under in shallow water so as to feed off the bottom; play at; tinker; do something lightly or playfully
79. Rig - To supply what is needed for some activity or purpose; things needed for a task, journey, or other purpose; set or style of clothing; provide with a harness or equipment; fit out; equip (a ship) with sails, shrouds, and yards; manipulate dishonestly for personal gain; special apparatus used for drilling oil wells; costume or an outfit; fishing tackle
80. Lurk - To lie in wait, as in ambush; move furtively; sneak; exist unobserved or unsuspected; read but not contribute to the discussion in a newsgroup, chatroom, or other online forum; hide; move stealthily; to hide in order to attack
81. Frieze - A plain or decorated horizontal part of an entablature between the architrave and cornice; decorative horizontal band, as along the upper part of a wall in a room; coarse, shaggy woolen cloth with an uncut nap; dense, low-pile surface, as in carpeting, resembling such cloth; band of designs, drawings, or carvings used as a decoration along a wall or around a room
82. Whit - The least bit; an iota; tiny amount
83. Whiff - A slight, gentle gust of air; a waft; brief, passing odor carried in the air; inhalation, as of air or smoke; be carried in brief gusts; waft; swing at and miss a ball or puck; slight amount or indication; perceive with the olfactory sense; short light gust of air; strikeout resulting from the batter swinging at and missing the ball for the third strike; utter with a puff of air
84. Staccato - Cut short crisply; detached(music); marked by or composed of abrupt, disconnected parts or sounds; made up of rapid, short, sharp sounds
85. Libretto - The text of a dramatic musical work, such as an opera; book containing such a text; text of an opera
86. Gubernatorial - Of or relating to a governor; of or relating to government
87. Exchequer - Money available; the treasury of a country or organization; financial resources; funds; British governmental department charged with the collection and management of the national revenue
88. Feint - A deceptive action calculated to divert attention from one's real purpose; feigned attack designed to draw defensive action away from an intended target; indirect, usually cunning means of gaining an end; pretense; mock attack or movement in warfare, made in order to distract or deceive an enemy; any sham, pretense, or deceptive movement
Opera - A theatrical presentation in which a dramatic performance is set to music; the score of such a work; drama set to music
90. Virile - Of, relating to, or having the characteristics of an adult male; having or showing masculine spirit, strength, vigor, or power; potent; manly
Tantalizing - Enticingly in sight, yet often out of reach; arousing desire or expectation for something unattainable or mockingly out of reach; very pleasantly inviting
92. Insipid - Lacking flavor or zest; not tasty; lacking qualities that excite, stimulate, or interest; dull
Annul - To make or declare void or invalid, as a marriage or a law; nullify; obliterate the effect or existence of; void an agreement; put an end to, especially formally and with authority; remove or invalidate by or as if by running a line through or wiping clean
94. Allude - To make an indirect reference; to suggest or infer; make a more or less disguised reference to
Demography - The study of the characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics; study of the characteristics of people residing in an area, including age, sex, income
96. Rotundity -
Rounded in figure; plump; having a full, rich sound; sonorous; having or producing a full, deep, or rich sound; well-rounded and full in form
97. Benediction - A blessing; an invocation of divine blessing, usually at the end of a church service; an expression of good wishes; closing prayer; short prayer said at meals; blessing
98. Ablution - A washing or cleansing of the body, especially as part of a religious rite
99. Glutton - A person who eats or consumes immoderate amounts of food and drink; person with an inordinate capacity to receive or withstand something; overeater
100. Quaint - Charmingly odd, especially in an old-fashioned way; unfamiliar or unusual in character; strange; cleverly made; artful; old-fashioned; strange; odd
Assiduous - Constant in application or attention; diligent; unceasing; persistent; hard-working
Rancor - Bitter, long-lasting resentment; deep-seated ill will
Abet - To give support or assistance; assist, help in wrongdoing; approve, encourage, and support (an action or a plan of action); urge and help on
Mottled - Spotted or blotched with different shades or colors; speckled
Purvey - To supply (food, for example); furnish; advertise or circulate; supply with provisions; meal provided after a funeral by the family of the deceased to the mourners
106. Surmount - To overcome (an obstacle, for example); conquer; ascend to the top of; climb; place something above; top; surpass or exceed in amount; overcome, triumph over; be or do something to a greater degree
107. Estimable - Possible to estimate; deserving of esteem; admirable; honorable, worthy; may be computed or estimated
108. Dour - Marked by sternness or harshness; forbidding; silently ill-humored; gloomy; sternly obstinate; unyielding; gloomy, grim; cold and forbidding; broodingly and sullenly unhappy; unfriendly and sullen
109. Salubrious - Conducive or favorable to health or well-being; promoting good health; health-giving
110. Antediluvian - Extremely old and antiquated; out-of-date; prehistoric; belonging to, existing, or occurring in times long past; of, existing, or occurring in a distant period; an antique; something of the time before the great flood in the Bible
111. Dessert - A usually sweet course or dish, as of fruit, ice cream, or pastry, served at the end of a meal; something sweet served at the end of a meal; fresh fruit, nuts, or sweetmeats served after the sweet course of a dinner
Striate - Marked with striae; striped, grooved, or ridged; to mark with a line or band, as of different color or texture
113. Perturbation -
The state of being perturbed; agitation; small change in a physical system; state of discomposure; upset, unsettle
114. Pacific
- Tending to diminish or put an end to conflict; appeasing; of a peaceful nature; tranquil; being of a peaceful nature; not quarrelsome or unruly; disposed to peace or of a peaceful nature; promoting peace
115. Succumb -
To submit to an overpowering force or yield to an overwhelming desire; give up or give in; to die; die or surrender; consent reluctantly; be fatally overwhelmed
Impetuous - Characterized by sudden and forceful energy or emotion; impulsive and passionate; having or marked by violent force; acting without thinking
117. Lithe - Readily bent; supple; marked by effortless grace; flexible, graceful and slender; limber, graceful and quick
118. Aggrandize - To increase the scope of; extend; make greater in power, influence, stature, or reputation; cause something to seem or be greater, bigger
Belie - To give a false representation to; misrepresent; to show to be false; contradict; deceive
Stasis - A condition of balance among various forces; motionlessness; stable state characterized by the cancellation of all forces by equal opposing forces
121. Proffer - To offer for acceptance; tender; act of proffering; an offer; put before another for acceptance; suggest, offer


A). rhetoric:persuasion
B). prevarication:truth - Ans: X avoids Y
C). metaphor:description
D). repetition:boredom
E). conciliation:appeasement
2. stench:nose
4. isthmus:land
6. haphazard:order
7. layover:journey
10. starry-eyed:pragmatic
12. abdicate:throne
13. trenchant:insipid
14. singers:opera
15. demography:population
16. classroom:teacher
17. glasses:vision
18. thermometer:temperature
19. antediluvian:age
20. dessert:meal
21. feral:domesticated
22. perturbation:passive
23. striated:grooves
24. mulish:persuaded
25. impetuous:hesitancy


The purpose of many advertisements is to make consumers want to buy a product so that they will 'be like' the person in the ad. This practice is effective because it not only sells products but also helps people feel better about themselves
The best way to understand the character of a society is to examine the character of the men and women that the society chooses as its heroes or its heroines
History teaches us only one thing: knowing about the past cannot help people to make important decisions today
There are two types of laws: just and unjust. Every individual in a society has a responsibility to obey just laws and, even more importantly, to disobey and resist unjust laws
Many people know how to attain success, but few know how to make the best use of it
The surest indicator of a great nation is not the achievements of its rulers, artists, or scientists, but the general welfare of all its people


1. The following appeared in a memorandum from a dean at Omega University.

"Fifteen years ago, Omega University implemented a new procedure that encouraged students to evaluate the teaching effectiveness of all their professors. Since that time, Omega professors have begun to assign higher grades in their classes, and overall student grade averages at Omega have risen by thirty percent. Potential employers apparently believe the grades at Omega are inflated; this would explain why Omega graduates have not been as successful at getting jobs as have graduates from nearby Alpha University. To enable its graduates to secure better jobs, Omega University should now terminate student evaluation of professors."

Wednesday, March 12, 2008

MARCH - High frequency words

MARCH THREAD - Updated regularly

Make sure to do all words from previous threads also...

Whimsical - Determined by, arising from, or marked by whim or caprice; erratic in behavior or degree of unpredictability; playful, fanciful; determined by chance or impulse rather than by necessity or reason
2. Noxious - Harmful to the mind or morals; corrupting; injurious to health
Pulverize - To pound, crush, or grind to a powder or dust; to demolish; destroy
Preponderance - Superiority in weight, force, importance, or influence; great numbers; supremacy
Superciliousness - The quality of being arrogant; the trait of displaying arrogance by patronizing those considered inferior

6. Lachrymose - Weeping or inclined to weep; tearful; causing or tending to cause tears
Reconciliation - A reestablishment of friendship or harmony; harmonizing; restoration of friendly relations; reuniting; suspension of hostilities. An armed truce for the purpose of digging up the dead
8. Dust jacket - A removable paper cover used to protect the binding of a book; cardboard sleeve in which a phonograph record is packaged; a paper jacket for a book; a jacket on which promotional information is printed
9. Apron - A garment of cloth worn to protect your clothing; a defined area on an airfield intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refueling, parking, or maintenance; flat piece of wood mounted under the base of a cabinet; part of a stage in a theater extending in front of the curtain; platform, as of planking, at the entrance to a dock
10. Whereabouts - The general location where something is; about where or near what place

11. Facetious - Playfully jocular; humorous; tongue-in-cheek, kidding; intended to excite laughter or amusement
12. Synergy - The interaction of two or more agents or forces so that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects; cooperative interaction among groups, especially among the acquired subsidiaries or merged parts of a corporation, that creates an enhanced combined effect; process in which two organs, substances, or agents work simultaneously to enhance the functions and effects of one another; joint work toward a common end
13. Rebuff - A blunt or abrupt repulse or refusal, as to an offer; check or an abrupt setback to progress or action; unkind refusal or rejection; snub; turning away; ignoring
Zealot - Excessive enthusiasm or u can say excessive zeal; or fanatic
Vile - Very evil; unpleasant; so objectionable as to elicit despisal or deserve condemnation; heavily soiled; very dirty or unclean; extremely unpleasant to the senses or feelings; having or proceeding from low moral standards; offensive, horrible; loathsome; disgusting
16. Obstinate - Stubbornly adhering to an attitude, opinion, or course of action; obdurate; difficult to manage, control, or subdue; refractory; difficult to alleviate or cure; stubborn, determined
17. Bemoan - To express grief over; lament; express disapproval of or regret for; deplore; express sorrow; regret strongly
18. Dauntless - Incapable of being intimidated or discouraged; fearless; having or showing courage; bold, courageous
19. Succor - Assistance in time of distress; relief; one that affords assistance or relief; to give assistance to in time of want, difficulty, or distress; give support or assistance
20. Indelible - Impossible to remove, erase, or wash away; permanent; unable to be forgotten; memorable; indestructible; cannot be removed, washed away or erased
Endeavor - To try hard; attempt to achieve something; work with a set or specified goal or purpose; conscientious or concerted effort toward an end; an earnest attempt; enterprise
Fraught - Filled with a specified element or elements; charged; marked by or causing distress; emotional; freight; cargo; marked by distress; filled with or attended with
23. Placidity - The quality or state of being placid; calmness; serenity; a feeling of calmness; a quiet and undisturbed feeling; a disposition free from stress or emotion
Inane - One that lacks sense or substance; stupid
Bellicose - Warlike or hostile in manner or temperament; likely to quarrel or fight; having or showing an eagerness to fight
26. Furrow - A long shallow trench in the ground; make wrinkled or creased;
a deep wrinkle in the skin, as on the forehead
Complaisance - Agreeableness; disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others
28. Daft - Mad; crazy; foolish; stupid; scots; frolicsome
29. Abattoir - A slaughterhouse; something likened to a slaughterhouse
30. Unflappable - Persistently calm, whether when facing difficulties or experiencing success; not easily upset or excited; cool and calm
Puckish - Mischievous; impish; naughtily or annoyingly playful
Porous - Penetrated by pores and open spaces; having holes; absorbent; admitting the passage of gas or liquid through pores or interstices; easily crossed or penetrated
33. Ostracize - To exclude from a group; to exclude from normal social or professional activities; to force to leave a country or place by official decree; exile, banish; to put into public disfavor
34. Droll - Amusingly odd or whimsically comical; amusing, farcical; buffoon; arousing laughter
35. Maverick - An unbranded range animal, especially a calf that has become separated from its mother, traditionally considered the property of the first person who brands it; one that refuses to abide by the dictates of or resists adherence to a group; a dissenter; being independent in thought and action or exhibiting such independence; radical
36. Insipid - Lacking flavor or zest; not tasty; lacking qualities that excite, stimulate, or interest; dull
37. Inclement - Stormy; showing no clemency; unmerciful; bitter, nasty (weather); cruel, merciless; (of weather of climate) physically severe; used of persons or behavior; showing no clemency or mercy
Irk - To be irritating, wearisome, or vexing to
Perplexed - Filled with confusion or bewilderment; puzzled; full of complications or difficulty; involved; mentally uncertain; full or difficulty or confusion or bewilderment
40. Recant - To make a formal retraction or disavowal of (a statement or belief to which one has previously committed oneself); make a formal retraction or disavowal of a previously held statement or belief; to disavow (something previously written or said) irrevocably and usually formally; take back something said; to take back formally an opinion or belief
41. Heinous - Grossly wicked or reprehensible; abominable: a heinous crime; horrifying, monstrous; very evil or wicked
42. Dilapidate - To bring or fall into a state of partial ruin, decay, or disrepair; bring into a condition of decay or partial ruin by neglect or misuse
43. Dank - Disagreeably damp or humid; clammy; slightly wet; unpleasantly damp or cold
Evanescence - The act or state of vanishing away; disappearance; act or an example of passing out of sight; the event of fading and gradually vanishing from sight
Egregious - Conspicuously bad or offensive; outstandingly bad; outrageous
Aplomb - Self-confident assurance; poise; assurance of manner or of action; a firm belief in one's own powers; stable, calm state of the emotions
Ceaseless - Without stop or pause; constant
Insouciant - Marked by blithe unconcern; nonchalant; easygoing, casual
49. Altercation - A vehement quarrel; discussion, often heated, in which a difference of opinion is expressed; fight, often verbal; angry fight or dispute
Avaricious - Immoderately desirous of wealth or gain; greedy
Covet - To feel blameworthy desire for (that which is another's); wish for longingly; feel immoderate desire for that which is another's; desire strongly; feel envy towards or for; Wish, long, or crave for (something, especially the property of another person)
Vitiate - To reduce the value or impair the quality of; to corrupt morally; debase; to make ineffective; invalidate
Senility - Old age; mental and physical deterioration associated with aging; loss of faculties
Brat - A child, especially a spoiled or ill-mannered on; child of a career military person
55. Equanimity - The quality of being calm and even-tempered; composure; level-headedness; evenness of mind or temper
56. Bolster - To support or prop up with or as if with a long narrow pillow or cushion; to buoy up or hearten; keep from yielding or failing during stress or difficulty; help; short horizontal timber or steel member placed on top of a column to support and decrease the span of beams or girders; to support; reinforce. To give a boost to someone
Lofty - Of imposing height; elevated in character; exalted; arrogant; haughty; affecting grandness; pompous; exceedingly dignified in form, tone, or style; of high moral or intellectual value; elevated in nature or style
Unctuous - Characterized by affected, exaggerated, or insincere earnestness; slippery; greasy; affectedly and self-servingly earnest; too polite in speech or manner
59. Whet - To sharpen (a knife, for example); hone; make more keen; stimulate; sharpen; arouse; excite
60. Imprudent - Unwise or indiscreet; not prudent; without much thought; foolish; not careful; rash or heedless
61. Agape - In a state of wonder or amazement, as with the mouth wide open; wide open; love as revealed in Jesus, seen as spiritual and selfless and a model for humanity
62. Debilitate - To sap the strength or energy of; enervate; lessen or deplete the nerve, energy, or strength of; incapacitate; reduce in strength; to weaken

63. Callous - Emotionally hardened; unfeeling; having calluses; toughened; completely lacking in compassion; cruel, insensitive; without regard for the feelings or sufferings of others
64. Mundane - Of, relating to, or typical of this world; secular; relating to, characteristic of, or concerned with commonplaces; ordinary; commonplace; person who is not in science fiction fandom; person who is not in the computer industry
65. Coy - Tending to avoid people and social situations; reserved; affectedly and usually flirtatiously shy or modest; annoyingly unwilling to make a commitment; very modest; not forward but reticent or reserved in manner; given to flirting; shy
66. Oscillate - To swing back and forth with a steady, uninterrupted rhythm; to waver, as between conflicting opinions or courses of action; vacillate; vary between alternate extremes, usually within a definable period of time; change back and forth; move rhythmically back and forth suspended or as if suspended from above
Shun - To avoid deliberately; keep away from; avoid; ignore
Disgruntled - To put in a bad mood; unhappy; critical; in a state of sulky dissatisfaction
69. Thaw - Change from a frozen solid to a liquid by gradual warming; unfreeze, warm
70. Thwart -
To prevent from accomplishing a purpose; stop, hinder; oppose and defeat the efforts, plans, or ambitions of; seat across a boat on which a rower may sit
Pellucid - Admitting the passage of light; transparent or translucent; transparently clear in style or meaning; admitting maximum passage of light; reflecting light evenly; transparent, translucent. Also: Easy to understand
72. Sordid - Filthy or dirty; foul; depressingly squalid; wretched; morally degraded; exceedingly mercenary; grasping; dirty, bad, low
73. Penitent - Feeling or expressing remorse for one's misdeeds or sins; person performing penance under the direction of a confessor; shamed, sorrowful; undergoing or awaiting punishment
Intransigent - Refusing to moderate a position, especially an extreme position; uncompromising; firmly, often unreasonably immovable in purpose or will; not capable of being swayed or diverted from a course; unsusceptible to persuasion
Upbraid - To criticize for a fault or an offense; to scold; utter a reproach to
76. Implacable - Impossible to placate or appease; firmly, often unreasonably immovable in purpose or will; merciless, cruel; incapable of being pleased
77. Obstreperous - Noisily and stubbornly defiant; aggressively boisterous; unruly; not submitting to discipline or control; offensively loud and insistent
78. Reminiscence - The act or process of recollecting past experiences or events; event that brings to mind a similar, former event; calling to mind of incidents within the range of personal knowledge or experience; narrative of experiences undergone by the writer. commentary (often used in plural)
79. Rant - To speak or write in an angry or violent manner; rave; utter or express with violence or extravagance; speak in a loud, pompous, or prolonged manner; pretentious, pompous speech or writing; yelling, raving; speech or piece of writing that incites anger or violence

80. Unencumbered - Not burdened or hampered
81. Relegate - To assign to an obscure place, position, or condition; assign to a particular class or category; classify; refer or assign (a matter or task, for example) for decision or action; send to a place of exile; banish; downgrade; put in the charge of another for care, use, or performance; send off or consign, as to an obscure position or remote destination
Beleaguer - To harass; beset; surround with troops; besiege; to trouble persistently from or as if from all sides; to disturb by repeated attacks; to surround with hostile troops
83. Wax - Any of various natural, oily or greasy heat-sensitive substances, consisting of hydrocarbons or esters of fatty acids that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents; resinous mixture used by shoemakers to rub on thread; phonograph record; to increase gradually in size, number, strength, or intensity; to show a progressively larger illuminated area, as the moon does in passing from new to full; to grow or become as specified
84. Abstain - To refrain from something by one's own choice; to refrain from voting; hold back from doing
85. Knotty - Tied or snarled in knots; covered with knots or knobs; gnarled; difficult to understand or solve; troublesome
86. Stark - Bare or blunt; complete or utter; extreme; harsh; grim; bare, unadorned; utter, absolute; barren and desolate
87. Dab - To spread with a greasy, sticky, or dirty substance; a tiny amount; a person with a high degree of knowledge or skill in a particular field
Nonchalance - Casual lack of concern; stable, calm state of the emotions; trait of remaining calm and seeming not to care; calmness
89. Plethora - A superabundance; an excess; excess of blood in the circulatory system or in one organ or area; condition of going or being beyond what is needed, desired, or appropriate
Panorama - An unbroken view of an entire surrounding area; comprehensive presentation; a survey; picture or series of pictures representing a continuous scene, often exhibited a part at a time by being unrolled and passed before the spectator; mental vision of a series of events; building containing an exhibit of an extended pictorial representation of landscape or some event of note; usually depicted of a large, wide area; clear and open view in all directions

91. Exude - To ooze forth; to discharge or emit (a liquid or gas, for example) gradually; to exhibit in abundance; to flow or leak out or emit something slowly; display, emit
Titanic - Having great stature or enormous strength; huge or colossal; of enormous scope, power, or influence
Lugubrious - Mournful, dismal, or gloomy, especially to an exaggerated or ludicrous degree
Obsequiousness - Full of or exhibiting servile compliance; fawning; groveling, submissive; too ready to serve; excessively eager to serve or obey
95. Hastening - To move or act swiftly; cause to hurry; speed up; accelerate
96. Corpulent - Excessively fat; chubby; having too much flesh
97. Taunt - To reproach in a mocking, insulting, or contemptuous manner; drive or incite (a person) by taunting; scornful remark or tirade; a jeer
Proxy - A person authorized to act for another; an agent or substitute; written authorization to act in place of another; authority to act for another; a person who is given the power to act for another in voting
Fathom - A unit of length equal to 6 feet (1.83 meters), used principally in the measurement and specification of marine depths; to perceive and recognize the meaning of; discern, understand
Ameliorate - To make or become better; improve; relieve or reduce pain
Telling - Having force and producing a striking effect; revealing previously unknown information; effective, significant; disclosing information or giving evidence about another
Refute - To prove to be false or erroneous; overthrow by argument or proof; to deny the accuracy or truth of; prove false; discredit
Derogate - To take away; detract; to deviate from a standard or expectation; go astray; to disparage; belittle; to think, represent, or speak of as small or unimportant
Nepotism - Favoritism shown or patronage granted to relatives, as in business; favor a relative, especially in regard to political office; favoritism
Tortuous - Full of plot twists
Laze - To be lazy; loaf; to pass time without working or in avoiding work; relax; be idle; exist in a changeless situation
Mollify - To calm in temper or feeling; soothe; lessen in intensity; temper; reduce the rigidity of; soften; ease the anger or agitation of; ause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of; make more temperate, acceptable, or suitable by adding something else; moderate
Presbyterian - One who holds the conviction that the government authorities of the Church should be called presbyters; that form of church government which invests presbyters with all spiritual power, and admits no prelates over them; also, the faith and polity of the Presbyterian churches, taken collectively
Skimpy - Inadequate, as in size or fullness, especially through economizing or stinting; unduly thrifty; niggardly; sparse, inadequate; containing little excess
110. Askew - To one side; awry; crooked(ly); crooked; out of alignment
Untenable - Incapable of being defended or justified
Decrepit - Weakened, worn out, impaired, or broken down by old age, illness, or hard use; deteriorated, debilitated; showing signs of wear and tear or neglect
113. Mettle - Courage and fortitude; spirit; inherent quality of character and temperament; boldness, strength of character; quality of mind enabling one to face danger or hardship resolutely
114. Byzantine - The style of architecture developed in the Byzantine Empire; massive domes with square bases and rounded arches and spires and minarets and much use of mosaics; of or relating to the Eastern Orthodox Church; highly involved or intricate; characterized by elaborate scheming and intrigue; devious; difficult to understand because of intricacy

115. Hapless - Luckless; unfortunate; involving or undergoing chance misfortune
Gainsay - To declare false; deny; to oppose, especially by contradiction; refuse to admit the truth, reality, value, or worth of
117. Bouquet - A small cluster or arrangement of flowers; fragrance typical of a wine or liqueur; cut flowers that have been arranged in a usually small bunch; sweet or pleasant odor; bunch of flowers

118. Abound - To be great in number or amount; be fully supplied or filled; teem; be abundantly filled or richly supplied; overflowing; existing in abundance
119. Castigate - To inflict severe punishment on; to criticize severely
Impudent - Characterized by offensive boldness; insolent or impertinent; rude and disrespectful; shameless
121. Lenience - Kind, forgiving, or compassionate treatment of or disposition toward others; mercifulness as a consequence of being lenient or tolerant; a disposition to yield to the wishes of someone; lightening a penalty or excusing from a chore by judges or parents or teachers
122. Barrel - A large cylindrical container, usually made of staves bound together with hoops, with a flat top and bottom of equal diameter; trunk of a quadruped animal, such as a horse or cow; large quantity; act or instance of moving rapidly, often recklessly, in a motor vehicle; move at a high speed or rate of progress; large, round wooden container with curved sides and a flat top and bottom; move swiftly
123. Brazenness - The quality or state of being brazen; state or quality of being impudent or arrogantly self-confident; behavior marked by a bold defiance of the proprieties and lack of shame
124. Archipelago - A large group of islands; sea, such as the Aegean, containing a large number of scattered islands; group of islands near one another
125. Caricature - Type of art in which the characteristic features of the human figure are exaggerated for amusement or criticism
126. Robust - Full of health and strength; vigorous; powerfully built; sturdy; requiring or suited to physical strength or endurance; boisterous; marked by richness and fullness; full-bodied; healthy, strong
127. Dwindle - To become gradually less until little remains; waste away; taper off; become smaller or less; to slowly diminish
Vivid - Perceived as bright and distinct; brilliant; having intensely bright colors; having a very high degree of saturation; presented in clear and striking manner; felt with the freshness of immediate experience; active in forming lifelike images129. Pundit -
130. Opine - To state as an opinion; speak one's opinion without fear or hesitation; expect, believe, or suppose
131. Ca'canny - To go cautiously, quietly, gently, carefully, warily; moderation, caution, spec. the practice of 'going slow' at work
132. Scrap - A small piece or bit; a fragment; discarded waste material, especially metal suitable for reprocessing; break down into parts for disposal or salvage; discard as worthless or sell to be reused as parts; junk; to fight, often with the fists; fight or a scuffle; tiny amount; residual matter; tiny bit of something; abandon; argument
133. Retard - To cause to move or proceed slowly; delay or impede; hinder, obstruct
134. Regression - Reversion; retrogression; relapse to a less perfect or developed state; reversion to an earlier or less mature pattern of feeling or behavior; subsidence of the symptoms or process of a disease; return of a population to an earlier or less complex physical type in successive generations; relationship between the mean value of a random variable and the corresponding values of one or more independent variables; retrograde motion of a celestial body; relative fall in sea level resulting in deposition of terrestrial strata over marine strata
135. Reify - To regard or treat (an abstraction) as if it had concrete or material existence; interpretation of an abstract idea or concept, such as the state, as real or concrete; consider an abstract concept to be real
136. Ladle - a long-handled spoon with a deep bowl for serving soup, stew etc
137. Phlegmatic - Without emotion or interest; having or suggesting a calm, sluggish temperament; unemotional
138. Convivial - Fond of feasting, drinking, and good company; sociable; fun-loving; merry; festive
139. Duly - In a proper manner; at the expected time; accordingly, properly
140. Truss - A supportive device, usually a pad with a belt, worn to prevent enlargement of a hernia or the return of a reduced hernia; rigid framework, as of wooden beams or metal bars, designed to support a structure, such as a roof; something gathered into a bundle; a pack; iron fitting by which a lower yard is secured to a mast; compact cluster of flowers at the end of a stalk; tie up or bind tightly; bind or skewer the wings or legs of (a fowl) before cooking; support or brace with a truss; tie up (someone) with their arms at their sides
141. Rivet - A metal bolt or pin having a head on one end, inserted through aligned holes in the pieces to be joined and then hammered on the plain end so as to form a second head; fasten or secure with or as if with a rivet; hammer the headless end of so as to form a head and fasten something; fasten or secure firmly; fix; engross or hold (the attention, for example); compel, as the attention, interest, or imagination
142. Pundit - A source of opinion; a critic; learned person; usually elderly person noted for wisdom, knowledge, and judgment; person who is authority
143. Canny - Careful and shrewd, especially where one's own interests are concerned; cautious in spending money; frugal; steady, restrained, and gentle; snug and quiet; clever, artful; having or showing a clever awareness and resourcefulness in practical matters
Halcyon - Calm and peaceful; tranquil; prosperous; golden; serene; a fabled bird, identified with the kingfisher, that was supposed to have had the power to calm the wind and the waves while it nested on the sea during the winter solstice
Equivocal - Open to two or more interpretations and often intended to mislead; ambiguous; uncertain significance; of a doubtful or uncertain nature
Exculpate - To clear of guilt or blame; free from a charge or imputation of guilt; forgive
147. Incorrigible - Incapable of being corrected or reformed
Mulish - Stubborn and intractable; recalcitrant; unreasonably rigid in the face of argument or entreaty or attack
Torpor - A state of mental or physical inactivity or insensibility; apathy; dormant, inactive state of a hibernating or estivating animal; deficiency in mental and physical alertness and activity; lethargy; dullness
Daft - Mad; crazy; foolish; stupid; scots; frolicsome
151. Mawkish - Excessively and objectionably sentimental; sickening or insipid in taste; sentimental, emotional

152. Aberrant - Deviating from the proper or expected course; deviating from what is normal; untrue to type; not being normal
Capricious - Characterized by or subject to whim; impulsive and unpredictable; given to sudden behavior change
154. Fickle - Characterized by erratic changeableness or instability, especially with regard to affections or attachments; capricious; vacillating, blowing hot and cold
155. Apocryphal - Of questionable authorship or authenticity; erroneous; fictitious; questionable; fake; of questionable authenticity
Isthmus - A narrow strip of land connecting two larger masses of land; a narrow strip of tissue joining two larger organs or parts of an organ; narrow passage connecting two larger cavities; narrow strip of land that connects two larger bodies of land and has water on both sides
157. Nibble - To bite at gently and repeatedly; eat with small, quick bites or in small morsels; wear away or diminish bit by bit; very small quantity, especially of food; a morsel; take small or hesitant bites

158. Perfidious - Not true to duty or obligation; treacherous
159. Skirt - The periphery of a city or town; border, edge; avoid; get around; be on the edge; avoid fulfilling or answering completely; garment hanging from the waist and worn by women and girls; lower outer section of a rocket vehicle; flexible strip hanging from the base of an air-cushion vehicle; piece of fabric that extends over or beyond something to afford protection
160. Ebullient - Zestfully enthusiastic; boiling or seeming to boil; bubbling; full of joyful, unrestrained high spirits; enthusiastic
161. Torpor - A state of mental or physical inactivity or insensibility; apathy; dormant, inactive state of a hibernating or estivating animal; deficiency in mental and physical alertness and activity; lethargy; dullness
Lassitude - Lack of energy
Invigorate - To impart vigor, strength, or vitality to; animate; stimulate; heighten or intensify; give life or energy to; make lively; impart vigor, strength, or vitality to
Yield - Produce; grant, allow; give in, surrender; conform to the will or judgment of another, especially out of respect or courtesy; moderate or change a position or course of action as a result of pressure: ease off; give in from or as if from a gradual loss of strength; give up a possession, claim, or right; make as income or profit: bring in; to give up a possession, claim, or right; produce harvested from the land
165. Avowal - A frank admission or acknowledgment; act of admitting to something; a statement asserting the existence or the truth of something
166. Lionize - To look on or treat (a person) as a celebrity; treat as a celebrity; treat as a famous person
167. Exonerate - To free from blame; free from a responsibility, obligation, or task; excuse, clear of responsibility or blame
Dissimulation - To disguise (one's intentions, for example) under a feigned appearance; conceal one's true feelings or intentions; conceal, disguise; change or modify so as to prevent recognition of the true identity or character of
Magniloquent - Lofty and extravagant in speech; grandiloquent; characterized by language that is elevated and sometimes pompous in style; boastful
Spartan - Resolute in the face of pain or danger or adversity; unsparing and uncompromising in discipline or judgment; practicing great self-denial; austere; laconic; simple
171. Garrulous - Given to excessive and often trivial or rambling talk; tiresomely talkative; wordy and rambling; talkative
172. Splurge - To indulge in an extravagant expense or luxury; be showy or ostentatious; extravagant display; expensive indulgence; a spree; spend lavishly

173. Facile - Done in a quick smooth way; easy; easily mastered; working, acting, or speaking with effortless ease and fluency; arrived at without due care, effort, or examination; superficial; readily manifested, together with an aura of insincerity and lack of depth; pleasingly mild, as in disposition or manner
174. Repudiate - To refuse to recognize or acknowledge; reject; turn one's back on; disown
Malaise - A vague feeling of bodily discomfort, as at the beginning of an illness; general sense of depression or unease; general feeling of discomfort or uneasiness, often the first indication of an infection or other disease
Encipher - To put (a message, for example) into cipher; convert plain text into unintelligible form by means of a cipher system
177. Circuitous - Being or taking a roundabout, lengthy course; going around, indirect; not taking a direct or straight line or course; marked by obliqueness or indirection in speech or conduct; deviating from a straight course

178. Purism - Strict observance of or insistence on traditional correctness, especially of language
179. Truculent - Disposed to fight; pugnacious; expressing bitter opposition; scathing; disposed to or exhibiting violence or destructiveness; fierce; belligerent, hateful; defiantly aggressive
Nugatory - Of little or no importance; trifling. having no force; invalid
Sycophant - A servile self-seeker who attempts to win favor by flattering influential people; one who flatters another excessively
Fawn - To seek favor or attention by flattery and obsequious behavior; to support slavishly every opinion or suggestion of a superior; a young deer, less than one year old; a grayish yellow-brown to moderate reddish brown
Veracious - Honest; truthful; accurate; precise; consistently telling the truth; conforming to fact
Thrifty - Practicing or marked by the practice of thrift; wisely economical; industrious and thriving; prosperous; growing vigorously; thriving, as a plant; not wasteful
Grueling - Physically or mentally demanding to the point of exhaustion; difficult, taxing
Transitoriness - The quality or state of being transitory; speedy passage or departure
Accolade - An expression of approval; praise; special acknowledgment; an award; ceremonial embrace, as of greeting or salutation; ceremonial bestowal of knighthood; recognition; ornamental treatment, used over an arch, a door, or a window, composed of two curves meeting in the middle; often a richly decorated molding; approval
Hull - Dry outer covering of a fruit or seed or nut; the frame or body of ship
Fix - Difficult or ticklish situation; cook a meal; determine, decide; establish, make firm; focus on; manipulate, influence an event; mend, repair; prepare, plan ahead; wreak vengeance on
190. Sop - To dip, soak, or drench in a liquid; saturate; take up by absorption; piece of food soaked or dipped in a liquid; a bribe; something yielded to placate or soothe; give a conciliatory gift or bribe to
191. Lacerate - To rip, cut, or tear; to cause deep emotional pain to; distress; torn, mangled; wounded; having jagged, deeply cut edges; irregularly slashed and jagged as if torn
Covert - Existing or operating in a way so as to ensure complete concealment and confidentiality; lying beyond what is obvious or avowed; something that physically protects, especially from danger; a hiding place; clandestine, underhanded; something that serves to conceal or shelter


1. brat:urbanity
3. vitiate:quality
4. senility:consciousness
5. recant:spend
6. confident:doubt
7. abattoir:butcher
8. impervious:penetrate
9. fraught:placidity
10. inane:significance
11. dust jacket:books
12. apron:clothing
13. lost:whereabouts
14. mediate:reconciliation
15. proxy:vote
16. parliament:legislative
17. he:she
18. blockage:circulation
19. banana:peel
20. peanut:shell
21. experiment:discovery
22. bouquet:flowers
23. jog:exercise
25. preparation:ready
26. islands:archipelago
27. pundit:opine
28. mediate:reconciliation
29. vivid:inspiration
30. isthmus:land
31. adamant:moved
32. nibble:bite
34. hole:perforation
35. apocryphal:authenticity
36. mishap:accident
38. nugatory:worth
39. truculent:light
40. truss:support


The surest indicator of a great nation is not the achievements of its rulers, artists, or scientists, but the general welfare of all its people
2. Many people know how to attain success, but few know how to make the best use of it
3. The function of science is to reassure; the purpose of art is to upset. Therein lies the value of each
4. Money spent on research is almost always od investment, even when the results of the research are controversial
5. When research priorities are being set for science, education, or any other area, the most important question to consider is: How many people's lives will be improved if the results are successful?
6. In order to improve the quality of instruction at the college and university level, all faculty should be required to spend time working outside the academic world in professions relevant to the courses they teach
7. It is often necessary, even desirable, for political leaders to withhold information from the public
In most professions and academic fields, imagination is more important than knowledge
People who are the most deeply committed to an idea or policy are the most critical of it
To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards
It is primarily through formal education that a culture tries to perpetuate the ideas it favors and discredit the ideas it fears
Universities should require every student to take a variety of courses outside the student's field of study because acquiring knowledge of various academic disciplines is the best way to become truly educated
13. In any realm of life—whether academic, social, business, or political—the only way to succeed is to take a practical, rather than an idealistic, point of view. Pragmatic behavior guarantees survival, whereas idealistic views tend to be superceded by simpler, more immediate options
14. All nations should help support the development of a global university designed to engage students in the process of solving the world's most persistent social problems
15. In any realm of life—whether academic, social, business, or political—the only way to succeed is to take a practical, rather than an idealistic, point of view. Pragmatic behavior guarantees survival, whereas idealistic views tend to be super ceded by simpler, more immediate options
The most effective way to communicate an idea or value to large groups of people is through the use of images, not language
Rituals and ceremonies help define a culture. Without them, societies or groups of people have a diminished sense of who they are


The following appeared in an editorial in a business magazine.

"Although the sales of Whirlwind video games have declined over the past two years, a recent survey of video-game players suggests that this sales trend is about to be reversed. The survey asked video-game players what features they thought were most important in a video game. According to the survey, players prefer games that provide lifelike graphics, which require the most up-to-date computers. Whirlwind has just introduced several such games with an extensive advertising campaign directed at people 10 to 25 years old, the age-group most likely to play video games. It follows, then, that the sales of Whirlwind video games are likely to increase dramatically in the next few months."

2. The following appeared in a memo from the mayor of the town of Hopewell.

"Two years ago, the town of Ocean View built a new municipal golf course and resort hotel. During the past two years, tourism in Ocean View has increased, new businesses have opened there, and Ocean View's tax revenues have risen by 30 percent. The best way to improve Hopewell's economy, and generate additional tax revenues, is to build a golf course and resort hotel similar to those in Ocean View."

3. The following appeared as part of a letter to the editor of a local newspaper.

"During her three years in office, Governor Riedeburg has shown herself to be a worthy leader. Since she took office, crime has decreased, the number of jobs created per year has doubled, and the number of people choosing to live in our state has increased. These trends are likely to continue if she is reelected. In addition, Ms. Riedeburg has promised to take steps to keep big companies here, thereby providing jobs for any new residents. Anyone who looks at Ms. Riedeburg's record can tell that she is the best-qualified candidate for governor."

4. The following appeared in a local newspaper.

A folk remedy* for insomnia, the scent in lavender flowers, has now been proved effective. In a recent study, 30 volunteers with chronic insomnia slept each night for three weeks on lavender-scented pillows in a controlled room where their sleep was monitored. During the first week, volunteers continued to take their usual sleeping medication. They slept soundly but wakened feeling tired. During the second week, the volunteers discontinued their medication. As a result, they slept less soundly than the previous week and felt even more tired. During the third week, the volunteers slept longer and more soundly than in the previous two weeks. This shows that over a short period of time lavender cures insomnia.

*A folk remedy is usually a plant-based form of treatment common to traditional forms of medicine, ones that developed before the advent of modern medical services and technology.

5. The following appeared in a memo from the manager of television station KICK.

"A nationwide survey reveals that a sizeable majority of men would like to see additional sports programs on television. After television station WACK increased its sports broadcasts, its share of the television audience in its viewing area almost doubled. To gain a larger audience share in our area, and thus increase company profits, KICK should also revise its broadcast schedule to include more sports coverage."

6. The following appeared in a memo from the vice president of a food-distribution company with food-storage warehouses in several cities.

"Recently we signed a contract with The Fly-Away Pest-Control Company to provide pest-control services at our fast-food warehouse in Palm City, but last month we discovered that over $20,000 worth of food there had been destroyed by pest damage. Meanwhile, the Buzzoff Pest-Control Company, which we have used for many years, continued to service our warehouse in Wintervale, and last month only $10,000 worth of the food stored there had been destroyed by pest damage. Even though the price charged by Fly-Away is considerably lower, our best means of saving money is to return to Buzzoff Company for all our pest-control services."

7. The following is a letter to the editor of the Waymarsh Times.

"Traffic problems here in Waymarsh are obviously reaching record levels. While just three months ago it would take me 15 minutes to get to work, it now takes closer to 25. Waymarsh should follow the example of our neighboring city Gearsville. Last year, Gearsville implemented a policy that rewards people who share rides to work with coupons for free gas. Pollution levels in Gearsville have dropped since the policy was implemented, and several friends who live in Gearsville tell me that their trip to work is quicker than it used to be. With the terrible traffic and high pollution in Waymarsh, we must implement a policy similar to Gearsville's."

8. The following is a recommendation from the director of personnel to the president of Professional Printing Company.

"In a recent telephone survey of automobile factory workers, older employees were less likely to report that having a supervisor present increases their productivity. Among workers aged 18 to 29, 27 percent said that they are more productive in the presence of their immediate supervisor, compared to 12 percent for those aged 30 or over, and only 8 percent for those aged 50 or over. Clearly, if our printing company hires mainly older employees, we will increase productivity and save money because of the reduced need for supervisors. "

9. The following appeared as a letter to the editor of a farming publication.

"With continuing publicity about the need for healthful diets, and with new research about the harmful effects of eating too much sugar, nationwide demand for sugar will no doubt decline. Therefore, farmers in our state should use the land on which they currently grow sugar cane to grow peanuts, a food that is rich in protein and low in sugar. Farmers in the neighboring country of Palin greatly increased their production of peanuts last year, and their total revenues from that crop were quite high."

10. The following appeared in a letter to the school board in the town of Centerville.

"All students should be required to take the driver's education course at Centerville High School. In the past two years several accidents in and around Centerville have involved teenage drivers. Since a number of parents in Centerville have complained that they are too busy to teach their teenagers to drive, some other instruction is necessary to ensure that these teenagers are safe drivers. Although there are two driving schools in Centerville, parents on a tight budget cannot afford to pay for driving instruction. Therefore an effective and mandatory program sponsored by the high school is the only solution to this serious problem."