Monday, October 01, 2007

October - High frequency Words

OCTOBER THREAD - updated regularly

Make sure to do all words from April/ May/ June/ July/ September/ October thread also...

1. Invigorate - To impart vigor, strength, or vitality to; animate; stimulate; heighten or intensify; give life or energy to; make lively; impart vigor, strength, or vitality to
2. Assiduous - Constant in application or attention; diligent; unceasing; persistent; hard-working
3. Penchant - A definite liking; a strong inclination; fondness; strong liking for or bias in favor of something
4. Eulogy - A laudatory speech or written tribute, especially one praising someone who has died; high praise or commendation; expression of warm approval; acclamation
5. Disavow - To disclaim knowledge of, responsibility for, or association with; refuse to recognize or acknowledge; reject
6. Incompetent - Not qualified in legal terms; inadequate for or unsuited to a particular purpose or application; devoid of those qualities requisite for effective conduct or action; unskillful, unable; lacking the qualities, as efficiency or skill, required to produce desired results
7. Resilient - Marked by the ability to recover readily, as from misfortune; capable of returning to an original shape or position, as after having been compressed; bouncy, flexible; having the quality of springing back to a former position. Also: Able to recover quickly from sickness or difficulty; sturdy
8. Arid - Lacking moisture, especially having insufficient rainfall to support trees or woody plants; lacking interest or feeling; lifeless and dull; uninterested, spiritless; having little or no liquid or moisture; extremely dry
9. Bedlam - A place or situation of noisy uproar and confusion; chaotic situation; a state of extreme confusion and disorder; scene of great uproar and confusion
10. Frenetic - Wildly excited or active; frantic; frenzied; marked by extreme excitement, confusion, or agitation; maniacal
11. Erratic - Having no fixed or regular course; wandering; lacking consistency, regularity, or uniformity; unpredictable; wandering
12. Penitent - Feeling or expressing remorse for one's misdeeds or sins; person performing penance under the direction of a confessor; shamed, sorrowful; undergoing or awaiting punishment
13. Elation - High spirits; extreme happiness; lifting up by success; exaltation; inriation with pride of prosperity
14. Probity - Complete and confirmed integrity; uprightness; quality or state of being morally sound; fairness, honesty; virtue or integrity tested and confirmed
15. Indefeasible - That cannot be annulled or made void
16. Dawdler - One who wastes time in trifling employments; an idler; a trifler; someone who takes more time than necessary; someone who lags behind
17. Bogus - Counterfeit or fake; not genuine; fraudulently or deceptively imitative
18. Abstruse - Difficult to understand; recondite; difficult to understand
19. Resplendent - Splendid or dazzling in appearance; brilliant; bright, radiant; bright and colorful, almost glowing; marked by extraordinary elegance, beauty, and splendor
20. Metaphorical - Figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison; one thing conceived as representing another; a symbol; expressing one thing in terms normally denoting another
21. Literal - Employing the very same words as another; exact, real; being in accordance with, conforming to, or upholding the exact or primary meaning of a word or words; avoiding exaggeration, metaphor, or embellishment; factual; prosaic
22. Hapless - Luckless; unfortunate; involving or undergoing chance misfortune
23. Intransigent - Refusing to moderate a position, especially an extreme position; uncompromising; firmly, often unreasonably immovable in purpose or will; not capable of being swayed or diverted from a course; unsusceptible to persuasion
24. Predicament - A situation, especially an unpleasant, troublesome, or trying one, from which extrication is difficult; a difficult, often embarrassing situation or condition; the wage of consistency
25. Tactual - Of, relating to, or arising from the sense of touch; producing a sensation of touch; tactile
26. Opulent - Possessing or exhibiting great wealth; affluent; characterized by rich abundance; luxuriant; rich and superior in quality
27. Floppy - Tending to flop; loose and flexible; lacking in stiffness or firmness; limp
28. Willowy - Slender and graceful; planted with or abounding in willows
29. Potentiate - To enhance or increase the effect of (a drug); promote or strengthen (a biochemical or physiological action or effect); make potent or powerful
30. Frugality - Careful use of material resources; prudence in avoiding waste
31. Insolent - Presumptuous and insulting in manner or speech; arrogant; audaciously rude or disrespectful; impertinent; bold, disrespectful; rude and insulting
32. Mushroom - Any of various fleshy fungi of the class Basidiomycota, characteristically having an umbrella-shaped cap borne on a stalk, especially any of the edible kinds; to increase or expand suddenly, rapidly, or without control; sprout
33. Fungus - A plant that has no leaves, flowers, or green color
34. Satirize - A literary work in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, or wit
35. Lampoon - A written attack ridiculing a person, group, or institution; light, good-humored satire; a work, as a novel or play, that exposes folly by the use of humor or irony; ridicule, make fun of
36. Toil - To labor continuously; exhausting labor or effort; something that binds, snares, or entangles one; an entrapment; hard work; walk heavily, slowly, and with difficulty; to exert one's mental or physical powers, usually under difficulty and to the point of exhaustion
37. Motley - Having elements of great variety or incongruity; heterogeneous; mixed, varied; having many colors; variegated; parti-colored
38. Assuage - To make less severe or more bearable; soothe, relieve; reduce fear, excitement, pain, or disease
39. Immaculate - Impeccably clean; spotless; free from fault or error; innocent, uncorrupted; very clean
40. Dicey - Involving or fraught with danger or risk; risky;of uncertain outcome; especially fraught with risk
41. Feisty - Touchy; quarrelsome; full of spirit or pluck; frisky or spunky; showing courage; irritable and looking for trouble
42. Apocryphal - Of questionable authorship or authenticity; erroneous; fictitious; questionable; fake; of questionable authenticity
43. Mire - A usually low-lying area of soft waterlogged ground and standing water; viscous, usually offensively dirty substance; soil with mud; marsh or bog
44. Palpitate - To move with a slight tremulous motion; tremble, shake, or quiver; beat with excessive rapidity; throb; make rhythmic contractions, sounds, or movements; beat at a rapid pace, like heart; tremble; beat rapidly and irregularly
45. Redoubtable - Arousing fear or awe; formidable; worthy of respect or honor; formidable; causing fear
46. Amalgamate - To put together into one mass so that the constituent parts are more or less homogeneous; blend
47. Rebut - To refute, especially by offering opposing evidence or arguments, as in a legal case; to repel; present opposing evidence or arguments; argue against; prove wrong
48. Censor - To examine (material) and remove parts considered harmful or improper for publication or transmission; ban; forbid; person authorized to examine books, films, or other material and to remove or suppress what is considered morally, politically, or otherwise objectionable
49. Torpor - A state of mental or physical inactivity or insensibility; apathy; dormant, inactive state of a hibernating or estivating animal; deficiency in mental and physical alertness and activity; lethargy; dullness
Sangfroid - A stable, calm state of the emotions
51. Diatribe -
A long, violent, or blustering speech, usually of censure or denunciation; harangue, criticism; bitter or angry attack in speech or writing
52. Complaisance -
The inclination to comply willingly with the wishes of others; amiability; agreeableness; disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others
53. Perturbable - Liable to be perturbed or agitated; liable to be disturbed or disquieted
54. Amenable - Willing to carry out the wishes of others; able to be judged; responsible; willing, cooperative; willing to change or submit
55. Aberration - A departing from what is prescribed; condition of being abnormal; serious mental illness or disorder impairing a person's capacity to function normally and safely; state of abnormality; deviation from the normal or usual; straying away from what is normal; defect of focus, such as blurring in an image
56. Digression - The act of digressing; deviation; straying
Phlegmatic - Without emotion or interest; having or suggesting a calm, sluggish temperament; unemotional
58. Concord -
Harmonious mutual understanding; formal, usually written settlement between nations; pleasing agreement, as of musical sounds; agreement, treaty; unity, harmony
Modicum - A small, moderate, or token amount
Fathom - A unit of length equal to 6 feet (1.83 meters), used principally in the measurement and specification of marine depths; to perceive and recognize the meaning of; discern, understand
Incomprehensible - Difficult or impossible to understand or comprehend; unintelligible; impossible to know or fathom; not understandable
62. Tardy
- Occurring, arriving, acting, or done after the scheduled, expected, or usual time; late; moving slowly; sluggish
Hapless - Luckless; unfortunate; involving or undergoing chance misfortune
Metaphysical - Having no body, form, or substance; of, coming from, or relating to forces or beings that exist outside the natural world; not physical; without physical presence; ideal
Deferential - Marked by or exhibiting deference; marked by courteous submission or respect; respectful, considerate
Palliated - To relieve the symptoms of a disease or disorder; to make less severe or intense; mitigate; to make (an offense or crime) seem less serious; extenuate
Fawn - To seek favor or attention by flattery and obsequious behavior; to support slavishly every opinion or suggestion of a superior; a young deer, less than one year old; a grayish yellow-brown to moderate reddish brown
Avaricious - Immoderately desirous of wealth or gain; greedy
69. Covet -
To feel blameworthy desire for (that which is another's); wish for longingly; feel immoderate desire for that which is another's; desire strongly; feel envy towards or for; Wish, long, or crave for (something, especially the property of another person)
70. Byline - A line at the head of a newspaper or magazine article carrying the writer's name; a line giving the name of the writer of a story or article; an auxiliary activity

71. Indigenous - native
Tincture - An alcoholic, hydroalcoholic, or ethereal solution of a drug; something that imparts color; coloring or dyeing substance; a pigment; quality that colors, pervades, or distinguishes; to stain or tint with a color; to infuse, as with a quality; impregnate
73. Askew - To one side; awry; crooked(ly); crooked; out of alignment
Puckish - Mischievous; impish; naughtily or annoyingly playful
75. Abscond -
To leave quickly and secretly and hide oneself, often to avoid arrest or prosecution; leave confinement or threat, run away
76. Alcove - A recess or partly enclosed extension connected to or forming part of a room; secluded structure, such as a bower, in a garden; small recessed space, opening directly into a larger room
77. Recess -
A pause or interval, as from work or duty; interrupt regular activity for a short period; stop action; break, interval in action; any shallow depression in a surface
78. Furtive -
Characterized by stealth; surreptitious; expressive of hidden motives or purposes; shifty; slow, deliberate, and secret as to escape observation; trickily secret; sneaky, secretive; done on the sly or in a sneaky way
Untenable - Incapable of being defended or justified
80. Amalgamate -
To combine into a unified or integrated whole; unite; mix or alloy (a metal) with mercury; unite or blend with another metal
81. Choir - An organized company of singers, especially one performing church music or singing in a church
82. Ephemeral
- lasting for a markedly brief time
83. Enduring -
Lasting; continuing; durable; long-suffering; patient; existing or remaining in the same state for an indefinitely long time
84. Splint - A rigid device used to prevent motion of a joint or of the ends of a fractured bone; thin, flexible wooden strip, such as one used in the making of baskets or chair bottoms; plate or strip of metal; bony enlargement of the cannon bone or splint bone of a horse; hin piece split off from a larger piece; a splinter; a rigid appliance for the fixation of displaced or movable parts; a support or brace used to fasten or confine; metal, acrylic resin, or modeling compound fashioned to retain in position teeth that may have been replanted or have fractured roots
85. Choreography - The art of creating and arranging dances or ballets; art of designing dances
86. Plot - A secret plan to achieve an evil or illegal end; series of events and relationships forming the basis of a composition; piece of land; show graphically the direction or location of, as by using coordinates; plan, scheme
Laconic - Using or marked by the use of few words; terse or concise; short, to the point
Sobriquet - An affectionate or humorous nickname; an assumed name; a familiar name (often a shortened version of a person's given name)
Audacious - daring ;bold
Lassitude - lack of energy
91. Rile -
To stir to anger; to stir up (liquid); roil; to trouble the nerves or peace of mind of, especially by repeated vexations; anger, upset; cause annoyance in; disturb, esp. by minor irritations; make turbid by stirring up the sediments of
92. Debilitated -
Showing impairment of energy or strength; enfeebled; lacking strength or vigor
Impel - To urge to action through moral pressure; drive; to drive forward; propel; prompt, incite
94. Flashy -
Cheap and showy; gaudy; Giving a momentary or superficial impression of brilliance; flamboyant, in poor taste
Esoteric - Beyond the understanding of an average mind; mysterious, obscure; not publicly disclosed; confidential; confined to a small group; intended for or understood by only a particular group; of or relating to that which is known by a restricted number of people
96.Topography - Concerned with topography;
the character, natural features, and configuration of land; surface features of a place or region
97. Measureless - Too great to be measured; immeasurable; having no ends or limits; boundless
98. Connotation - Something, such as a feeling, thought, or idea, associated in one's mind or imagination with a specific person or thing; that which is signified by a word or expression; implication
99. Rue - European strong-scented perennial herb with gray-green bitter-tasting leaves; leaves sometimes used for flavoring fruit or claret cup but should be used with great caution; feel remorse for; feel sorry for; be contrite about
100. Exhortation - A speech or discourse that encourages, incites, or earnestly advises; urging; a communication intended to urge or persuade the recipients to take some action
101. Canonize - To declare (a deceased person) to be a saint and entitled to be fully honored as such; to treat as sacred; glorify; approve as being within canon law

102. Lachrymose - Weeping or inclined to weep; tearful; causing or tending to cause tears
103. Evanescence - The act or state of vanishing away; disappearance; act or an example of passing out of sight; the event of fading and gradually vanishing from sight
104. Rebuke - To criticize or reprove sharply; reprimand; check or repress; a sharp reproof; harsh criticism
105. Feral - Existing in a wild or untamed state; having returned to an untamed state from domestication; of or suggestive of a wild animal; savage; wild; being wild after escaping from domestication
106. Dilettante - A dabbler in an art or a field of knowledge; lover of the fine arts; a connoisseur; superficial; amateurish; lacking professional skill and ease in a particular pursuit
107. Incredulous - Skeptical; disbelieving; expressive of disbelief; refusing or reluctant to believe; unbelieving
108. Gullible - Easily deceived or duped; easily imposed on or tricked; naive, trusting
109. Ossified - Changed to bone or something resembling bone; hardened by deposits of mineral matter of any kind; -- said of tissues; rigid, unimaginative convention; process of becoming set in a rigidly conventional pattern, as of behavior, habits, or beliefs
110. Pantry - A small room or closet, usually off a kitchen, where food, tableware, linens, and similar items are stored; small room used for the preparation of cold foods; small room off a kitchen where dishes, food, etc are stored; room for preparing refreshments, not complete meals; serving room between kitchen and dining space
111. Bungle - To work or act ineptly or inefficiently; handle badly; botch; clumsy or inept performance; proceed or perform in an unsteady, faltering manner; blunder, mess up
112. Prevaricate - misleading or equivoacte
113. Prodigal - Rashly or wastefully extravagant; giving or given in abundance; lavish or profuse; wasteful; a recklessly extravagant consumer
114. Zealot - excessive enthusiasm or u can say excessive zeal; or fanatic
115. Persecutor - One who persecutes, or harasses
116. Persecute - To oppress or harass with ill-treatment, especially because of race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or beliefs; annoy persistently; bother; do a wrong to; treat unjustly; wrong, torment
117. Flippancy - The state or quality of being flippant; irreverence
118. Unbridled - Unrestrained; uncontrolled; lacking in moral restraint; being without restraint
119. Currency - The state of being current; up-to-dateness; money in any form when in actual use as a medium of exchange, especially circulating paper money; prevalence
120. Detraction - A derogatory or damaging comment on a person's character or reputation; disparagement; act or an instance of belittling; expression of injurious, malicious statements about someone; misrepresentation; slander
121. Daft - Mad; crazy; foolish; stupid; scots; frolicsome
122. Prolix - Rambling and wordy
123. Ameliorate - To make or become better; improve; relieve or reduce pain
124. Ruse - A crafty stratagem; a subterfuge; indirect, usually cunning means of gaining an end; a deceptive maneuver
125. Portrait - Drawing, painting, or photograph of a person
126. Uncanny - Peculiarly unsettling, as if of supernatural origin or nature; so keen and perceptive as to seem preternatural; of a mysteriously strange and usually frightening nature; very strange, unusual
127. Exonerate - To free from blame; free from a responsibility, obligation, or task; excuse, clear of responsibility or blame
128. Groundless - Having no ground or foundation; unsubstantiated; without reason, justification; false
129. Thwart - To prevent from accomplishing a purpose; stop, hinder; oppose and defeat the efforts, plans, or ambitions of; seat across a boat on which a rower may sit
130. Tortuous - Full of plot twists
131. Nebulous - Cloudy, misty, or hazy; lacking definite form or limits; vague; liable to more than one interpretation; confused, obscure
132. Therapeutic - Having or exhibiting healing powers; healing
133. Bonhomie - A pleasant and affable disposition; geniality; a disposition to be friendly and approachable (easy to talk to)
134. Illicit - Not sanctioned by custom or law; unlawful; not legal; forbidden
135. Abase - To lower in rank, prestige, or esteem; deprive of self-esteem or confidence
136. Eavesdrop - To listen secretly to the private conversation of others
137. Bulge - A protruding part; an outward curve or swelling; a bilge; a sudden, usually temporary increase in number or quantity; cause to curve outward; slang term used to describe a rapid advance in prices within the commodities market; swollen object; project outward
138. Pulchritude - Great physical beauty and appeal
139. Succinct - Characterized by clear, precise expression in few words; concise and terse
140. Err -To make an error or a mistake; violate accepted moral standards; sin; do wrong
141. Malingerer - To feign illness or other incapacity in order to avoid duty or work
142. Disentangle - To extricate from entanglement or involvement; free; clear up or resolve (a plot, for example); unravel; unwind, disconnect; solve; smoothen and neaten with or as with a comb
143. Bootless - Without advantage or benefit; useless; unproductive of success
144. Futility - The quality of having no useful result; uselessness; lack of importance or purpose; frivolousness; condition or quality of being useless or ineffective; fruitlessness
145. Banal - Commonplace; without freshness or appeal because of overuse
146. Psychophant - One who attempts to curry favor by flattering influential people, but does so to a psychotic, often violent degree
147. Skimp - To deal with hastily, carelessly, or with poor material; be stingy or very thrifty; scanty; be cheap or frugal about; give barely enough or not enough attention, funds or effort
148. Parsimony - Unusual or excessive frugality; extreme economy or stinginess; adoption of the simplest assumption in the formulation of a theory or in the interpretation of data, especially in accordance with the rule of Ockham's razor; extreme stinginess
149. Dulcet - Pleasing to the ear; melodious; having a soothing, agreeable quality; archaic; sweet to the taste
150. Defiance - The act or an example of defying; bold resistance to an opposing force or authority; intentionally contemptuous behavior or attitude; readiness to contend or resist; disobedience, disregard; an act that is intentionally provocative; disposition boldly to defy or resist authority or an opposing force
151. Senility - Old age; mental and physical deterioration associated with aging; loss of faculties
152. Obviate - To make unnecessary
153. Equivocal - Open to two or more interpretations and often intended to mislead; ambiguous; uncertain significance; of a doubtful or uncertain nature
154. Aberrant - Deviating from the proper or expected course; deviating from what is normal; untrue to type; not being normal
155. Halcyon - Calm and peaceful; tranquil; prosperous; golden; serene; a fabled bird, identified with the kingfisher, that was supposed to have had the power to calm the wind and the waves while it nested on the sea during the winter solstice
156. Despot - A ruler with absolute power; a person who wields power oppressively; a tyrant; dictator
157. Therapeutic - Having or exhibiting healing powers; healing; serving to cure
158. Seethe - To churn and foam as if boiling; be in a state of turmoil or ferment; be violently excited or agitated; be angry and silently fixated on a problem; be very angry; be in a state of emotional or mental turmoil
159. Scrimp - To economize severely; be excessively sparing with or of; to cut or make too small or scanty; spend as little as possible; save money; be severely sparing in order to economize
160. Incriminate - To accuse of a crime or other wrongful act; cause to appear guilty of a crime or fault; implicate; to show evidence of involvement in a crime or fault; make an accusation against; to cause to appear involved in or guilty of a crime or fault
161. Podium - An elevated platform, as for an orchestra conductor or public speaker; stand for holding the notes of a public speaker; a lectern; low wall serving as a foundation; wall circling the arena of an ancient amphitheater; structure resembling or functioning as a foot; low platform, especially one where the conductor of an orchestra stands
162. Conductor - One who directs an orchestra or other such group; substance or medium that conducts heat, light, sound, or especially an electric charge; lightning rod, as on a house or barn; one who is in charge of a railroad train, bus, or streetcar
163. Incrimination - The act of incriminating; crimination; charging of someone with a misdeed; an accusation that you are responsible for some lapse or misdeed
164. Pulpit - An elevated platform, lectern, or stand used in preaching or conducting a religious service; elevated metal guardrail extending around the bow or stern of a yacht or other small vessel; elevated platform, such as one used by harpooners in a whaling boat; clerics considered as a group; ministry of preaching
165. Malaise - A vague feeling of bodily discomfort, as at the beginning of an illness; general sense of depression or unease; general feeling of discomfort or uneasiness, often the first indication of an infection or other disease
166. Retract - To disavow (something previously written or said) irrevocably and usually formally; pull back in: draw in; move back or away from a point, limit, or mark; take back; renege on; recall or take back (something that one has said)
167. Chicanery - Deception by trickery or sophistry; lack of straightforwardness and honesty in action; legal trickery or false argument; deception, trickery
168. Harbinger - One that indicates or foreshadows what is to come; a forerunner; signal the approach of; presage
169. Fervor - Great warmth and intensity of emotion; intense heat; excitement, enthusiasm
Ceaseless - Without stop or pause; constant
171. Rapport - Relationship, especially one of mutual trust or emotional affinity; understanding between people; harmonious mutual understanding
172. Truculence - A disposition or apparent disposition to fight, especially fiercely; ferociously cruel actions or behavior; obstreperous and defiant aggressiveness
173. Careworn -
Showing the effects of worry, anxiety, or burdensome responsibility; pale and exhausted, as because of worry or sleeplessness; showing the wearing effects of overwork or care or suffering
174. Extricate -
To release from an entanglement or difficulty; disengage; get out of situation; relieve of responsibility
Comestible - Fit to be eaten; edible; something that can be eaten as food
176. Monarch - One who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and by hereditary right, especially; sovereign, such as a king or empress, often with constitutionally limited authority; sole and absolute ruler
177. Turmoil -
A state of extreme confusion or agitation; commotion or tumult; chaos
178. Yawn - To open the mouth wide and breathe in deeply especially when one is sleepy; to open the mouth wide with a deep inhalation, usually involuntarily from drowsiness, fatigue, or boredom
179. Foolhardy - Unwisely bold or venturesome; rash; characterized by unthinking boldness and haste; impetuous, rash; adventurous or bold but lacking in good sense
Befriend - To behave as a friend to; make social acquaintance; support
181. Bungalow - A small house or cottage usually having a single story and sometimes an additional attic story; thatched or tiled one-story house in India surrounded by a wide verandah
Pedantic - Characterized by a narrow, often ostentatious concern for book learning and formal rules; bookish, precise; showing off learning
Pithy - Precisely meaningful; forceful and brief; consisting of or resembling pith
184. Ambulate - To walk from place to place; move about; to go on foot; walk about; not be bedridden or incapable of walking
Minuet - A slow, stately pattern dance in 3/4 time for groups of couples, originating in 17th-century France; a movement in 3/4 time that is usually the third, but sometimes the second, of a four-movement symphony or string quartet
186. Dissect -
To cut apart or separate (tissue), especially for anatomical study; examine, analyze, or criticize in minute detail; cut into pieces; cut up; take apart
187. Specimen - A bit of tissue or blood that is taken for diagnostic purposes; individual, item, or part representative of a class, genus, or whole


1). frenetic:energetic
2). mushroom:fungus - X is a type of Y
3). lampoon:satirize
4). palpitate:beat
5). tilt:level
7). aberration:usual
8). incomprehensible:fathom
10). article:byline
11). singer:choir
12). tincture:stain
13). depart:abscond

14). alcove:recess
15). choreography:dance
16). splint:mobility
17). ephemeral:enduring
18). topographical:surface
19). measureless:limit

20). evanescence:permanence
21). ossified:flexibility
22). oxygen:gas
23). portrait:paintings
24). document:file
25). metamorphosis:latent
26). banana:peel
27). fixture:permanent
28). school:fish
29). abase:prestige
30). vocabulary:word
31). listen:eavesdrop
32). malingerer:incapacity
33). wildness:feral
34). bootless:futility
35). skimp:parsimonius
36). accelerate:speed
37). defiance:resistance
38). senility:consciousness
39). conductor:podium
40). verbose:succinct
41). queen:monarch
42). pantry:comestible
43). yawn:sleepiness
44). curtain:stage
45). aridity:humidity
46). tin:metal
48). bungalow:building
49). eulogy:praise
50). zealot:enthusiasm
51). dislocation:position
52). dissect:specimen
53). school:educate


1. It is primarily through formal education that a culture tries to perpetuate the ideas it favors and discredit the ideas it fears
2. In any field of inquiry, the beginner is more likely than the expert to make important discoveries
3. Technologies not only influence but actually determine social customs and ethics

4. It is always an individual who is the impetus for innovation; the details may be worked out by a team, but true innovation results from the enterprise and unique perception of an individual
5. The best way to understand the character of a society is to examine the character of the men and women that the society chooses as its heroes or its heroines
6. It is more important to allocate money for immediate, existing social problems than to spend it on long-term research that might help future generations
7. Governments should focus more on solving the immediate problems of today rather than trying to solve the anticipated problems of the future
8. Most people are taught that loyalty is a virtue. But loyalty—whether to one's friends, to one's school or place of employment, or to any institution—is all too often a destructive rather than a positive force
9. We can usually learn much more from people whose views we share than from people whose views contradict our own; disagreement can cause stress and inhibit learning
10. Too much emphasis is placed on role models. Instead of copying others, people should learn to think and act independently and thus make the choices that are best for them
11. The study of history places too much emphasis on individuals. The most significant events and trends in history were made possible not by the famous few, but by groups of people whose identities have long been forgotten
12. Some educational systems emphasize the development of students' capacity for reasoning and logical thinking, but students would benefit more from an education that also taught them to explore their own emotions
13. History teaches us only one thing: knowing about the past cannot help people to make important decisions today
14. Scandals—whether in politics, academia, or other areas—can be useful. They focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could
15. The study of an academic discipline alters the way we perceive the world. After studying the discipline, we see the same world as before, but with different eyes
The surest indicator of a great nation is not the achievements of its rulers, artists, or scientists, but the general welfare of all its people
The study of history has value only to the extent that it is relevant to our daily lives


1. The following appeared in a memorandum from a dean at Omega University.

"Fifteen years ago, Omega University implemented a new procedure that encouraged students to evaluate the teaching effectiveness of all their professors. Since that time, Omega professors have begun to assign higher grades in their classes, and overall student grade averages at Omega have risen by thirty percent. Potential employers apparently believe the grades at Omega are inflated; this would explain why Omega graduates have not been as successful at getting jobs as have graduates from nearby Alpha University. To enable its graduates to secure better jobs, Omega University should now terminate student evaluation of professors."

2. "Typically, as people age, their bone mass decreases, making them more vulnerable to bone fractures. A recent study concludes that the most effective way to reduce the risk of fractures in later life is to take twice the recommended dose of vitamin D and calcium daily. The three-year study followed a group of French women in their eighties who were nursing-home residents. The women were given daily supplements of twice the recommended dose of vitamin D and calcium. In addition, the women participated in a light weightlifting program. After three years, these women showed a much lower rate of hip fractures than is average for their age".

3. The following is a recommendation from the director of personnel to the president of Professional Printing Company.

"In a recent telephone survey of automobile factory workers, older employees were less likely to report that having a supervisor present increases their productivity. Among workers aged 18 to 29, 27 percent said that they are more productive in the presence of their immediate supervisor, compared to 12 percent for those aged 30 or over, and only 8 percent for those aged 50 or over. Clearly, if our printing company hires mainly older employees, we will increase productivity and save money because of the reduced need for supervisors. "

4. The following appeared in a memorandum from the planning department of an electric power company.

"Several recent surveys indicate that homeowners are increasingly eager to conserve energy and manufacturers are now marketing many home appliances, such as refrigerators and air conditioners, that are almost twice as energy-efficient as those sold a decade ago. Also, new technologies for better home insulation and passive solar heating are readily available to reduce the energy needed for home heating. Therefore, we anticipate that the total demand for electricity in our area will not increase, and may decline slightly. Since our three electric generating plants in operation for the past 20 years have always met our needs, construction of new generating plants should not be necessary."

5. The following appeared in a memo from the president of a company that makes breakfast cereals.

"In a recent study, subjects who ate soybeans at least five times per week had significantly lower cholesterol levels than subjects who ate no soy products. By fortifying our Wheat-O cereal with soy protein, we can increase sales by appealing to additional consumers who are concerned about their health. This new version of Wheat-O should increase company profits and, at the same time, improve the health of our customers."

6. The following appeared in a memorandum from the president of Mira Vista to the college's board of trustees.

"At nearby Green Mountain College, which has more business courses and more job counselors than does Mira Vista College, 90 percent of last year's graduating seniors had job offers from prospective employers. But at Mira Vista College last year, only 70 percent of the seniors who informed the placement office that they would be seeking employment had found full-time jobs within three months after graduation, and only half of these graduates were employed in their major field of study. To help Mira Vista's graduates find employment, we must offer more courses in business and computer technology and hire additional job counselors to help students with their resumès and interviewing skills

The following appeared in a letter to the editor of the Walnut Grove town newspaper.

"Walnut Grove's town council has advocated switching from EZ Disposal (which has had the contract for trash collection services in Walnut Grove for the past ten years) to ABC Waste, because EZ recently raised its monthly fee from $2,000 to $2,500 a month, whereas ABC's fee is still $2,000. But the town council is mistaken; we should continue using EZ. EZ collects trash twice a week, while ABC collects only once. Moreover, EZ—which, like ABC, currently has a fleet of 20 trucks—has ordered additional trucks. Finally, EZ provides exceptional service: 80 percent of respondents to last year's town survey agreed that they were 'satisfied' with EZ's performance."

The following appeared in a medical newsletter.

"Doctors have long suspected that secondary infections may keep some patients from healing quickly after severe muscle strain. This hypothesis has now been proved by preliminary results of a study of two groups of patients. The first group of patients, all being treated for muscle injuries by Dr. Newland, a doctor who specializes in sports medicine, took antibiotics regularly throughout their treatment. Their recuperation time was, on average, 40 percent quicker than typically expected. Patients in the second group, all being treated by Dr. Alton, a general physician, were given sugar pills, although the patients believed they were taking antibiotics. Their average recuperation time was not significantly reduced. Therefore, all patients who are diagnosed with muscle strain would be well advised to take antibiotics as part of their treatment. "

9. The following appeared in an editorial in a Prunty County newspaper.

"In an attempt to improve highway safety, Prunty County recently lowered its speed limit from 55 miles per hour to 45 on all major county roads. But the 55 mph limit should be restored, because this safety effort has failed. Most drivers are exceeding the new speed limit and the accident rate throughout Prunty County has decreased only slightly. If we want to improve the safety of our roads, we should instead undertake the same kind of road improvement project that Butler County completed five years ago: increasing lane widths and resurfacing rough roads. Today, major Butler County roads still have a 55 mph speed limit, yet there were 25 percent fewer reported accidents in Butler County this past year than there were five years ago."