Sunday, July 01, 2007

July - Words

JULY THREAD - updated every alternate day

Make sure to do all words and questions from April/May/June thread

1. Odium - The state or quality of being odious. Strong dislike, contempt, or aversion. A state of disgrace resulting from hateful or detestable
2. Glut - To fill beyond capacity, especially with food; satiate
3. Nervy - Arrogantly impudent; brazen. Showing or requiring courage and fortitude; bold.
4. Pallid - Having an abnormally pale or wan complexion; lacking intensity of color or luminousness
5. Diaphanous - So light and insubstantial as to resemble air or a thin film; fine, see-through
6. Dishevelled - Being in loose disarray; unkempt, as hair or clothing; marked by disorder; untidy; wrinkled, unkempt in appearance
7. Disconsolate - Seeming beyond consolation; extremely dejected; cheerless; gloomy; depressed, unhappy
8. Batten - Grow fat,thrive upon others
9. Conch - Large seashell
10. Ingenue - An artless girl;an actress who plays such parts
11. Orison - Prayer
12. Rambunctious - Boisterous and disorderly
13. Hellion - A mischievous, troublesome, or unruly person
14. Carpophagous - Feeding on fruit; fruit-eating
15. Rancor - Bitter, long-lasting resentment; deep-seated ill will
16. Derivative - Resulting from or employing derivation; copied or adapted from others
17. Spurn - To be unwilling to accept, consider, or receive; to kick at or tread on disdainfully
18. Quatrain - A stanza or poem of four lines
19. Fustian - A coarse sturdy cloth made of cotton and flax; pretentious speech or writing; pompous language; pompous, bombastic, and ranting
20. Bombastic - Pompous, grandiloquent; boastful in speech or writing
21. Bootless - Without advantage or benefit; useless; unproductive of success
22. Futile - Having no useful result; trifling and frivolous; idle
23. Debase - To lower in character, quality, or value; degrade; adulterate
24. Compunction - A strong uneasiness caused by a sense of guilt; a feeling of regret for one's sins or misdeeds; a feeling of uncertainty about the fitness or correctness of an action; regret, sorrow
25. Yokel - An uneducated country person; clumsy, unsophisticated person; a rustic; a bumpkin
26. Bumptious - Crudely or loudly assertive; pushy; self-important, conceited; offensively self-assertive
27. Chimera - A fantastic, impracticable plan or desire; dream, fantasy
28. Circumspect - Heedful of circumstances and potential consequences; prudent; trying attentively to avoid danger, risk, or error; cautious, discreet
29. Turpitude - Depravity; baseness; a base act
30. Infinitude - The state or quality of being infinite; an immeasurably large quantity, number, or extent
31. Cistern - A receptacle for holding water or other liquid, especially a tank for catching and storing rainwater
32. Dulcet - Pleasing to the ear; melodious; having a soothing, agreeable quality; archaic; sweet to the taste
33. Phlegmatic - Without emotion or interest; having or suggesting a calm, sluggish temperament; unemotional
34. Heresy - A controversial or unorthodox opinion or doctrine, as in politics, philosophy, or science; adherence to such controversial or unorthodox opinion; unorthodoxy
35. Anarchic - Lacking order or control; without law or control
36. Current - A steady, smooth onward movement; a general tendency, movement, or course; the amount of electric charge flowing past a specified circuit point per unit time; running; flowing
37. Gall - The quality or state of feeling bitter; the state or quality of being impudent or arrogantly self-confident; to make (the skin) raw by or as if by friction; to trouble the nerves or peace of mind of, especially by repeated vexations
38. Hirsute - Having a hairy covering
39. Malady - Any physical disease or disorder; a disease, a disorder, or an ailment; an unwholesome condition
40. Fickleness - The quality of being fickle; instability; inconsonancy
41. Resonant - Echoing; full in sound; vibrant in sound; having or producing a full, deep, or rich sound
42. Glacier - A huge mass of ice slowly flowing over a land mass, formed from compacted snow in an area where snow accumulation exceeds melting and sublimation
43. Saga - A long detailed report; epic tale, long story
44. Afferent - Carrying inward to a central organ or section, as nerves that conduct impulses from the periphery of the body to the brain or spinal cord; transmitting impulses from sense organs to nerve centers
45. Castigate - To inflict severe punishment on; to criticize severely
46. Lull - To make or become calm; pause, calm; ease off; to cause to sleep or rest 47. Malevolent - Having or exhibiting ill will; wishing harm to others; malicious
48. Imminent - About to occur; impending; at hand, on the way
49. Abate - To lessen; to subside; in metalwork, to cut away or beat down so as to show a pattern or figure in low relief
50. Stultify - To allege or prove insane and so not legally responsible; cause to appear foolish; deprive of strength or efficiency; make useless or worthless; cripple
51. Demur - To express opposition, often by argument; disagree; to delay
52. Munificent - Very liberal in giving; generous; showing great generosity
53. Tractable - Easily managed or controlled; governable; willing to carry out the wishes of others; manageable
54. Obsequious - Full of or exhibiting servile compliance; fawning; excessively eager to serve or obey; submissive
55. Slothful - Disinclined to work or exertion; lazy
56. Assiduity - Persistent application or diligence; unflagging effort; great and constant diligence and attention
57. Impel - To urge to action through moral pressure; drive; to drive forward; propel; prompt, incite
58. Prescience - Knowledge of actions or events before they occur; foresight; unusual or creative discernment or perception
59. Unswerving - Constant; steady
60. Vacillate - To sway from one side to the other; oscillate
61. Cajole - To urge with gentle and repeated appeals, teasing, or flattery; wheedle; attempt to coax; flatter
62. Obdurate - Stubborn and unfeeling
63. Allay - To reduce the intensity of; relieve; to calm or pacify; set to rest
64. Pelf - Wealth or riches, especially when dishonestly acquired
65. Effuse - To cause (a liquid) to flow in a steady stream; give out or emit; to spread or flow out
66. Supercillious - Overly convinced of one's own superiority and importance; arrogant, stuck-up
67. Legerdemain - The use of skillful tricks and deceptions to produce entertainingly baffling effects; manual dexterity in the execution of tricks
68. Instate - To establish in office; install; to admit formally into membership or office, as with ritual
69. Blanket - To extend over the surface of; cover; a layer that covers or encloses
70. Denude - To divest of covering; make bare; to expose (rock strata) by erosion
71. Shrivel - To become or make much less or smaller; dwindle; to become or make shrunken and wrinkled, often by drying; to lose or cause to lose vitality or intensity; dehydrate, dry up
72. Grovel - To behave in a servile or demeaning manner; cringe; abase, demean oneself
73. Referee - One to whom something is referred, especially for settlement, decision, or an opinion as to the thing's quality
74. Caginess - Having or showing a clever awareness and resourcefulness in practical matters; secretive; wary; careful; shrewd
75. Excise - An internal tax imposed on the production, sale, or consumption of a commodity or the use of a service within a country; a licensing charge or a fee levied for certain privileges; remove, delete
76. Conciliatory - Tending to conciliate; pacific; mollifying; propitiating; placid, yielding
77. Prolixity - Words or the use of words in excess of those needed for clarity or precision; using or containing an excessive number of words; long-winded; wordy
78. Semitic - Of, relating to, or constituting a subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic language group that includes Arabic, Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic; of or relating to the Semites or their languages or cultures
79. Cadge - To beg or get by begging
80. Futon - A thin mattress of tufted cotton batting or similar material, placed on a floor or on a raised, foldable frame; mattress consisting of a pad of cotton batting that is used for sleeping on the floor or on a raised frame
81. Toady - A person who flatters or defers to others for self-serving reasons; a sycophant; tray to gain favor by cringing or flattering
82. Rapprochement - A reestablishing of cordial relations, as between two countries; the state of reconciliation or of cordial relations; restoration of harmony
83. Obliterate - To destroy all traces of; to wipe out, rub off, or erase
84. Timorous - Full of apprehensiveness; timid; easily frightened
85. Ecumenical - Of worldwide scope or applicability; universal; non-denominational; of or relating to the worldwide Christian church; concerned with establishing or promoting unity among churches or religions
86. Bibulous - Given to or marked by the consumption of alcoholic drink; very absorbent, as paper or soil; inclined to drink; of or relating to drink or drinking
87. Fustian - Pretentious, pompous speech or writing; a coarse sturdy cloth made of cotton and flax; pompous or pretentious talking or writing
88. Impugn - To attack as false or questionable; challenge in argument; criticize, challenge
89. Pristine - Remaining in a pure state; uncorrupted by civilization. Remaining free from dirt or decay; clean
90. Vociferous - Offensively loud and insistent
91. Convoy - The act of accompanying or escorting, especially for protective purposes; an accompanying and protecting force, as of ships or troops; a group, as of ships or motor vehicles, traveling together with a protective escort or for safety or convenience; to accompany, especially for protection; escort
92. Belie - To give a false representation to; misrepresent; to show to be false; contradict; deceive
93. Nullify - To make null; invalidate; to counteract the force or effectiveness of; cancel, revoke
94. Dissembler - One who dissembles; one who conceals his opinions or dispositions under a false appearance; a hypocrite
95. Forthright - Direct and without evasion; straightforward; directly and frankly; manifesting honesty and directness, especially speech
96. Abhorrence - One that is disgusting, loathsome, or repellent; an object of extreme dislike; the act of detesting extremely; hate coupled with disgust
97. Allegory - The representation of abstract ideas or principles by characters, figures, or events in narrative, dramatic, or pictorial form; a story, picture, or play employing such representation; a symbolic representation
98. Gossamer - So light and insubstantial as to resemble air or a thin film; gauzy, thin; soft light delicate material
99. Flag - To lose strength or power; droop
100. Thunderous - Producing thunder or a similar sound; loud and unrestrained in a way that suggests thunder; extremely ominous
101. Tempestuous - Violently disturbed or agitated, as by storms; tumultuous; stormy; wild
102. Haughty - Scornfully and condescendingly proud; arrogant
103. Chastise - To punish, as by beating; to criticize severely; rebuke; scold, discipline; to purify
104. Abhorrence - One that is disgusting, loathsome, or repellent; a feeling of repugnance or loathing; hate coupled with disgust; the act of detesting extremely
105. Irascible - Prone to outbursts of temper; easily angered. Characterized by or resulting from anger
106. Appendix - A collection of supplementary material, usually at the end of a book
107. Sumptuous - Of a size or splendor suggesting great expense; lavish; luxurious, splendid; rich and superior in quality
108. Fallow - Land left unseeded during a growing season; inactive; plowed but left unseeded during a growing season: fallow farmland
109. Plummet - To decline suddenly and steeply; to fall straight down; plunge; fall hard and fast
110. Benign - Of a kind and gentle disposition; having little or no detrimental effect; harmless
111. Immure - To confine within or as if within walls; imprison; lock up or confine, in or as in a jail
112. Voluble - Marked by a ready flow of speech; fluent; turning easily on an axis; rotating; talkative
113. Berate - To rebuke or scold angrily and at length; to reprimand loudly or harshly; criticize hatefully
114. Stolid - Having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; impassive; apathetic, stupid; without emotion or interest
115. Delineate - To draw or trace the outline of; sketch out. To represent pictorially; depict
116. Fracas - A noisy, disorderly fight or quarrel; a brawl; disturbance, fight
117. Gall - To become irritated, chafed, or sore; nerve, brashness; upset, irritate
118. Lampoon - A work, as a novel or play, that exposes folly by the use of humor or irony; ridicule, make fun of
119. Dwell - To live as a resident; reside; to fasten one's attention; to speak or write at length; expatiate; live in
120. Vicissitudinous - Full of, or subject to, changes
121. Martinet - A rigid military disciplinarian; one who demands absolute adherence to forms and rules; one who demands strict obedience
122. Lenient - Inclined not to be harsh or strict; merciful, generous, or indulgent; not strict or severe; not harsh or strict in dealing with others
123. Anecdote - A short account of an interesting or humorous incident; an entertaining and often oral account of a real or fictitious occurrence; a short, interesting, and amusing story
124. Voluptuous - Giving, characterized by, or suggesting ample, unrestrained pleasure to the senses; well-developed, erotic; having fullness of beautiful form
125. Gregarious - Seeking and enjoying the company of others; sociable
126. Serrated - Notched like the edge of a saw; saw-toothed; serrate
127. Ambivalence - The coexistence of opposing attitudes or feelings, such as love and hate, toward a person, object, or idea; uncertainty or indecisiveness as to which course to follow; the state of having conflicting feelings
128. Overture - An introductory section or part, as of a poem; a prelude; to present as an introduction or proposal; introduction, approach
129. Sanctimonious - Feigning piety or righteousness; of or practicing hypocrisy; self-righteous, hypocritical about one's own holiness
130. Inanity - Something empty of meaning or sense; total lack of ideas, meaning, or substance
131. Vulgarian - A vulgar person, especially one who makes a conspicuous display of wealth; an unrefined, rude person; a vulgar person (especially someone who makes a vulgar display of wealth)
132. Miscreant - An evildoer; a villain; an infidel; a heretic; evil, immoral; a villain
133. Wretched - So objectionable as to elicit despisal or deserve condemnation; terrible, very bad; of very inferior quality; miserable
134. Epic - An extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditional hero; a literary or dramatic composition that resembles an extended narrative poem celebrating heroic feats
135. Mendacious - Lying; untruthful; false; untrue; dishonest; given to or marked by deliberate concealment or misrepresentation of the truth
136. Narrative - A narrated account; a story; the art, technique, or process of narrating; a recounting of past events
137. Appease - To bring peace, quiet, or calm to; soothe; satisfy, pacify
138. Defiant - Marked by defiance; disobedient, disregardful
139. Raucous - Rough-sounding and harsh; boisterous and disorderly; rowdy; noisy; harsh and unpleasant
140. Meager - Deficient in quantity, fullness, or extent; scanty. Deficient in richness, fertility, or vigor; feeble
141. Flirtatious - Full of playful allure; provocative, teasing; given to flirting
142. Bumptious - Crudely or loudly assertive; pushy; self-assertive offensively self-assertive
143. Assertive - Inclined to bold or confident assertion; aggressively self-assured
144. Trite - Lacking power to evoke interest through overuse or repetition; hackneyed
145. Panegyric - A formal eulogistic composition intended as a public compliment. Elaborate praise or laudation; an encomium
146. Impecunious - Lacking money; penniless
147. Armageddon - The scene of a final battle between the forces of good and evil, prophesied to occur at the end of the world; a decisive or catastrophic conflict
148. Intrigue - A secret or underhand scheme; a plot; arouse curiosity
149. Gullible - Easily deceived or duped; easily imposed on or tricked; naive, trusting
150. Daguerreotype - An early photographic process with the image made on a light-sensitive silver-coated metallic plate
151. Musket - A smoothbore shoulder gun used from the late 16th through the 18th century
152. Hieroglyphic - Of or relating to representation by drawings or pictures
153. Papyrus - The writing paper of the ancient Egyptians, and later of the Romans
154. Pastiche - A mixture of materials, forms, motifs, and/or styles; often incongruous; dramatic, literary, or musical piece openly imitating the previous works of other artists, often with satirical intent; an artistic effort that imitates or caricatures the work of another artist
155. Bust - A sculpture representing a person's head, shoulders, and upper chest
156. Sacrilege - Desecration, profanation, misuse, or theft of something sacred; irreverence
157. Conscientious - Guided by or in accordance with the dictates of conscience; principled; thorough and assiduous; moral, upright; thorough, careful
158. Daft - Mad; crazy; foolish; stupid; scots; frolicsome
159. Reagent - A substance used in a chemical reaction to detect, measure, examine, or produce other substances
160. Temerity - Foolhardy disregard of danger; recklessness; nerve, audacity; rash or presumptuous daring
161. Menial - Work pertaining to servants; work that is demeaning or insulting to the person performing it; lowly, low-status
162. Miscreant - A wicked or evil person; a scoundrel; something said to be the cause of particular trouble or an evil; a mean, worthless character in a story or play
163. Stultify - To render useless or ineffectual; cripple; to cause to appear stupid, inconsistent, or ridiculous; to allege or prove insane and so not legally responsible
164. Lambast - Censure severely or angrily; beat with a cane
165. Pique - A state of vexation caused by a perceived slight or indignity; a feeling of wounded pride
166. Vociferous - Making, given to, or marked by noisy and vehement outcry; loud, insistent
167. Pariah - An outcast; a member of a low caste or class
168. Raft - A flat structure, typically made of planks, logs, or barrels, that floats on water and is used for transport or as a platform for swimmers; a flat buoyant structure of timber or other materials fastened together, used as a boat or floating platform
169. Buoyant - Having the ability to float; light in weight; lighthearted; gay
170. Unrealizable - Impossible to achieve
171. Renegade - common vagabond; a worthless or wicked fellow; one who deserts from a military or naval post; a deserter; one faithless to principle or party; an apostate from Christianity or from any form of religious faith
172. Ferocious - Extremely savage; fierce; marked by unrelenting intensity; extreme
173. Prolixity - Words or the use of words in excess of those needed for clarity or precision; boring verboseness
174. Mortify - To deprive of esteem, self-worth, or effectiveness; to cause (a person) to be self-consciously distressed; embarrass
175. Pusillanimous - Lacking courage; cowardly; lacking courage and resolution; marked by contemptible timidity; without spirit or bravery
176. Percipient - Having the power of perceiving, especially perceiving keenly and readily; astute; characterized by ease and quickness in perceiving
177. Anachronistic - Something that is out of place and time; erroneous in date
178. Fervor - Great warmth and intensity of emotion; intense heat; excitement, enthusiasm
179. Disinfectant - An agent, such as heat, radiation, or a chemical, that destroys, neutralizes, or inhibits the growth of disease-carrying microorganisms 180. Terseness - Brief and to the point; effectively concise; brief, short
181. Hoarse - Rough or grating in sound; having or characterized by a husky, grating voice; raspy in voice
182. Effusive - Unrestrained or excessive in emotional expression; gushy; profuse; overflowing
183. Obliterate - To destroy all traces of; to wipe out, rub off, or erase; to remove completely (a body organ or part), as by surgery, disease, or radiation
184. Index - An alphabetized list of names, places, and subjects treated in a printed work, giving the page or pages on which each item is mentioned; something that serves to guide, point out, or otherwise facilitate reference
185. Laconic - Using or marked by the use of few words; terse or concise; short, to the point
186. Nimble - Quick, light, or agile in movement or action; deft; dexterous, smart
187. Clumsyness - Lacking dexterity and grace in physical movement; not agile; awkward; clumsily lacking in the ability to do or perform
188. Partisan - A fervent, sometimes militant supporter or proponent of a party, cause, faction, person, or idea; one who supports and adheres to another; exhibiting bias; interested, factional
189. Recuperation - A return to normal health; gradual healing (through rest) after sickness or injury; recovery
190. Doldrums - A period of stagnation or slump; period of depression or unhappy listlessness; region of the ocean near the equator, characterized by calms, light winds, or squalls; feeling or spell of dismally low spirits; depression
191. Cow - To frighten with threats or a show of force; browbeat, intimidate;
any of various chiefly domesticated mammals of the genus Bos, including cows, steers, bulls, and oxen, often raised for meat and dairy products

192. Lop - To decrease, as in length or amount, by or as if by severing or excising; to hang limply, loosely, and carelessly; cut off from a whole
193. Fluvial - Of, relating to, or inhabiting a river or stream. Produced by the action of a river or stream
194. Jejune - Not interesting; dull; lacking maturity; childish; lacking in nutrition
195. Indespensible - Not to be dispensed with; essential; obligatory; unavoidable; necessary
196. Hubris - Overbearing pride or presumption; arrogance
197. Vigilance - Alert watchfulness; carefulness
198. Enfeeble - To deprive of strength; make feeble; make very weak
199. Ethereal - Characterized by lightness and insubstantiality; intangible; highly refined; delicate; of the celestial spheres; heavenly; spiritual; so light and insubstantial as to resemble air or a thin film
200. Laggard - One that lags; a straggler; hanging back or falling behind; dilatory; falling behind
201. Tarpaulin - Material, such as waterproofed canvas, used to cover and protect things from moisture; a waterproof cloth, esp. one used in large sheets for covering anything exposed to the weather
202. Mottled - Spotted or blotched with different shades or colors; speckled
203. Vault - A room or compartment, often built of steel, for the safekeeping of valuables; a burial place or receptacle for human remains; to move off the ground by a muscular effort of the legs and feet; act of jumping
204. Allay - To reduce the intensity of; relieve; to calm or pacify; set to rest
205. Stature - The natural height of a human or animal in an upright position; achieved level; status; importance
206. Infinitude - The state or quality of being infinite; an immeasurably large quantity, number, or extent; an infinite quantity
207. Hellion - A mischievous, troublesome, or unruly person
208. Lunge - A sudden thrust or pass, as with a sword; a sudden forward movement or plunge; pounce; dive for
209. Garish - Marked by strident color or excessive ornamentation; gaudy. loud and flashy
210. Piquant - Pleasantly pungent or tart in taste; spicy. appealingly provocative: a piquant wit. charming, interesting, or attractive
211. Ramshackle - So poorly constructed or kept up that disintegration is likely; rickety
212. Crotchety - Capriciously stubborn or eccentric; perverse; having a difficult and contrary disposition; irritable, often due to old age
213. Firefly - Any of various nocturnal beetles of the family Lampyridae, characteristically having luminescent chemicals in the posterior tip of the abdomen that produce a flashing light
214. Brute - Lacking or showing a lack of reason or intelligence; a brutal, crude, or insensitive person
215. Urbanity - Refined, effortless beauty of manner, form, and style; refinement and elegance of manner; polished courtesy; polished courtesy; elegance of manner
216. Treacle - Cloying speech or sentiment; a medicinal compound formerly used as an antidote for poison
217. Nervy - Arrogantly impudent; showing or requiring courage and fortitude; bold; rude and disrespectful; bold, pushy
218. Polar -
219. Dissonance - A harsh, disagreeable combination of sounds; state of disagreement and disharmony; consistency, or harmony; conflict
220. Coalesce - To grow together; fuse; to come together so as to form one whole; unite; blend, come together; to unite into a whole
221. Chrome - A hard silver metal that does not easily rust; something plated with a chromium alloy
222. Tarpaulin - Material, such as waterproofed canvas, used to cover and protect things from moisture
223. Second-rate - Of inferior or mediocre quality or value
224. Indolent - Disinclined to exert oneself; habitually lazy; causing little or no pain; slow to heal, grow, or develop; inactive
225. Vivify - To give or bring life to; animate; to make more lively, intense, or striking; to make alive


1. quatrain:stanza
2. bootless:futile
3. fustian:bombastic
4. infinitude:measure
5. cistern:liquid
6. lock:secure
7. vivid:intensity
8. debase:status
9. glacier:ice
10. resonant:sound
11. judge:laws
12. unswering:vacillate
13. cajoling:reluctance
14. slothful:assiduity
15. fence: livestock
16. reliable:fail
17. frill:superfluity
18. obsequious:toady
19. allay:relieve
20. exhaust:energy
21. dissembler:forthright
22. mirror:reflectivity
23. bolster:support
24. book:appendix
25. still:movement
26. stolid:impassive
27. martinet:lenient
28. school:learn
29. overture:introduction
30. futon:bed
31. miscreant:wretched
32. epic:poem
33. saga:anecdote
34. raucous:harsh
35. orchestra:musician
36. bumptious:assertive
37. daguerreotype:photograph:: Ans - E - X is an obsolete type of Y
(A) bust:statue::

(B) pastiche:painting
(C) narrative:novel
(D) hieroglyphic:papyrus
(E) musket:firearm
38. mirror:reflective
39. miscreant:criminal
40. anachronistic:time
41. fervor:zealot
42. tersness:superfluous
43. disinfectent:germ
44. percipent:discernment
45. envelope:enclose
46. obliterate:unnecessary
47. nimble:clumsyness
48. fluial:river
49. soothe:calm
50. enfeeble:strength
51. lock:secure
52. sedulous:diligent
53. allay:relief
54. vault:valaubles
55. stature:tall
56. toady: flatter
57. pique:assuage
58. piquant:insipid
59. dormant:vigor
60. reticent:garrulous
61. bumptious:assertive
62. saga:narrative
63. lucid:understand
64. abate:status
65. firefly:insect
66. brute:urbanity
67. car:chrome
68. indolent:vivify
69. querulous:complain


1. Laws should not be rigid or fixed. Instead, they should be flexible enough to take account of various circumstances, times, and places.
2. Success, whether academic or professional, involves an ability to survive in a new environment and, eventually, to change it.
3. The purpose of many advertisements is to make consumers want to buy a product so thatthey will 'be like' the person in the ad. This practice is effective because it not only sellsproducts but also helps people feel better about themselves.
4. Money spent on research is almost always a good investment, even when the results of that research are controversial
5.The most effective way to communicate an idea or value to large groups of people is through the use of images, not language.
6. The primary goal of technological advancement should be to increase people's efficiency so that everyone has more leisure time
7. The study of an academic discipline alters the way we perceive the world. After studying the discipline, we see the same world as before, but with different eyes
8. The most essential quality of an effective leader is the ability to remain consistently committed to particular principles and objectives. Any leader who is quickly and easily influenced by shifts in popular opinion will accomplish little
9. The surest indicator of a great nation is not the achievements of its rulers, artists, or scientists, but the general welfare of all its people
10. With the growth of global networks in such areas as economics and communication, there is no doubt that every aspect of society—including education, politics, the arts, and the sciences—will benefit greatly from international influences
11. Scholars and researchers should not be concerned with whether their work makes acontribution to the larger society. It is more important that they pursue their individual interests,however unusual or idiosyncratic those interests may seem
12. The arts (painting, music, literature, etc.) reveal the otherwise hidden ideas and impulses of a society
13. In many countries it is now possible to turn on the television and view government at work.Watching these proceedings can help people understand the issues that affect their lives. Themore kinds of government proceedings---trials, debates, meetings, etc.---that are televised,the more society will benefit
14. One can best understand the most important characteristics of a society by studying its major cities
15. The best way to understand the character of a society is to examine the character of the men and women that the society chooses as its heroes or its heroines
16. It is a grave mistake to theorize before one has data
17. While some leaders in government, sports, industry, and other areas attribute their success toa well-developed sense of competition, a society can better prepare its young people forleadership by instilling in them a sense of cooperation
18. The video camera provides such an accurate and convincing record of contemporary life that it has become a more important form of documentation than written records
19. The greatness of individuals can be decided only by those who live after them, not by their contemporaries
20. Government should place-few,if any restrictions on science research and development


1. The following report appeared in a memo from the vice president of the Southside Transportation Authority.
"We should abandon our current five-year plan to purchase additional buses to serve the campus of Southside University, because students there are unlikely to use them. Consider the results of the recent campaign sponsored by the Environmental Club at Southside University: in a program on the campus radio station, the club asked students to call in and pledge that they would commute to school by bus instead of by automobile at least one day per week. Only ten percent of the students called in and pledged. In view of the campaign's lack of success, we can assume that the bus service we currently offer will continue to be sufficient to serve the university."

2. The following is a letter that recently appeared in the Oak City Gazette, a local newspaper.
"Membership in Oak City's Civic Club — a club whose primary objective is to discuss local issues — should continue to be restricted to people who live in Oak City. People who work in Oak City but who live elsewhere cannot truly understand the business and politics of the city. It is important to restrict membership to city residents because only residents pay city taxes and therefore only residents understand how the money could best be used to improve the city. At any rate, restricting membership in this way is unlikely to disappoint many of the nonresidents employed in Oak City, since neighboring Elm City's Civic Club has always had an open membership policy, and only twenty-five nonresidents have joined Elm City's Club in the last ten years."

3. The following appeared as an editorial in the local newspaper of Dalton.

"When the neighboring town of Williamsville adopted a curfew four months ago that made it illegal for persons under the age of 18 to loiter or idle in public places after 10 p.m., youth crime in Williamsville dropped by 27 percent during curfew hours. In Williamsville's town square, the area where its citizens were once most outraged at the high crime rate, not a single crime has been reported since the curfew was introduced. Therefore, to help reduce its own rising crime rate, the town of Dalton should adopt the same kind of curfew. A curfew that keeps young people at home late at night will surely control juvenile delinquency and protect minors from becoming victims of crime."

4. The following appeared as an editorial in the local newspaper of Dalton.

"When the neighboring town of Williamsville adopted a curfew four months ago that made it illegal for persons under the age of 18 to loiter or idle in public places after 10 p.m., youth crime in Williamsville dropped by 27 percent during curfew hours. In Williamsville's town square, the area where its citizens were once most outraged at the high crime rate, not a single crime has been reported since the curfew was introduced. Therefore, to help reduce its own rising crime rate, the town of Dalton should adopt the same kind of curfew. A curfew that keeps young people at home late at night will surely control juvenile delinquency and protect minors from becoming victims of crime."

5. In each city in the region of Treehaven, the majority of the money spent on government-run public school education comes from taxes that each city government collects. The region's cities differ, however, in the value they place on public education. For example, Parson City typically budgets twice as much money per year as Blue City does for its public schools — even though both cities have about the same number of residents. It seems clear, therefore, that Parson City residents care more about public school education than do Blue City residents

6. The following appeared in an environmental newsletter published in Tria Island.

“The marine sanctuary on Tria Island was established to protect certain marine mammals. Its regulations ban dumping and offshore oil drilling within 20 miles of Tria, but fishing is not banned. Currently many fish populations in Tria’s waters are declining, a situation blamed on pollution. In contrast, the marine sanctuary on Omni Island has regulations that ban dumping, offshore oil drilling, and fishing within 10 miles of Omni and Omni reports no significant decline in its fish populations. Clearly, the decline in fish populations in Tria’s waters is the result of overfishing, not pollution. Therefore, the best way to restore Tria’s fish populations and to protect all of Tria’s marine wildlife is to abandon our regulations and adopt those of Omni.”

7. The following appeared in a letter from a department chairperson to the president of Pierce University.

"Some studies conducted by Bronston College, which is also located in a small town, reveal that both male and female professors are happier living in small towns when their spouses are also employed in the same geographic area. Therefore, in the interest of attracting the most gifted teachers and researchers to our faculty and improving the morale of our entire staff, we at Pierce University should offer employment to the spouse of each new faculty member we hire. Although we cannot expect all offers to be accepted or to be viewed as an ideal job offer, the money invested in this effort will clearly be well spent because, if their spouses have a chance of employment, new professors will be more likely to accept our offers."

8. The following appeared in a memo from the mayor of the town of Hopewell.

"Two years ago, the town of Ocean View built a new municipal golf course and resort hotel. During the past two years, tourism in Ocean View has increased, new businesses have opened there, and Ocean View's tax revenues have risen by 30 percent. The best way to improve Hopewell's economy, and generate additional tax revenues, is to build a golf course and resort hotel similar to those in Ocean View."

9. The following appeared in a memo written by a dean at Buckingham College.

"To serve the housing needs of our students, Buckingham College should build a new dormitory. Buckingham's enrollment is growing and, based on current trends, should double over the next fifty years, thus making existing dormitories inadequate. Moreover, the average rent for an apartment in our town has increased in recent years. Consequently, students will find it increasingly difficult to afford off-campus housing. Finally, an attractive new dormitory would make prospective students more likely to enroll at Buckingham.

10. The following is a letter to the head of the tourism bureau on the island of Tria.

"Erosion of beach sand along the shores of Tria Island is a serious threat to our island and our tourist industry. In order to stop the erosion, we should charge people for using the beaches. Although this solution may annoy a few tourists in the short term, it will reduce the number of people using the beaches and will raise money for replenishing the sand. Replenishing the sand, as was done to protect buildings on the nearby island of Batia, will help protect buildings along our shores, thereby reducing these buildings' risk of additional damage from severe storms. And since the areas along the shore will be more attractive as a result, the beaches will be preserved and the area's tourist industry will improve over the long term."

11. The following appeared in a memo at the XYZ company.

"When XYZ lays off employees, it pays Delany Personnel Firm to offer those employees assistance in creating resumès and developing interviewing skills, if they so desire. Laid-off employees have benefited greatly from Delany's services: last year those who used Delany found jobs much more quickly than did those who did not. Recently, it has been proposed that we use the less-expensive Walsh Personnel Firm in place of Delany. This would be a mistake because eight years ago, when XYZ was using Walsh, only half of the workers we laid off at that time found jobs within a year. Moreover, Delany is clearly superior, as evidenced by its bigger staff and larger number of branch offices. After all, last year Delany's clients took an average of six months to find jobs, whereas Walsh's clients took nine."